Cephalopod Studies for Human Wellbeing

DWhatley

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As we become more aware that our oceans are not boundless and need to be cared for, more and more studies are being done to see what nature's underwater pharmacy contains. Here is the first I have thought to record, please add discoveries as you find them.

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OCTOPUS AEGINA AND OCTOPUS DOLFUSII IN GULF OF MANNAR COAST
S Monolisha, AE Mani, J Patterson, JKP Edward August 2013

pdf available in the link

Abstract

Antibacterial activity and protein content was studied in two species of octopus belonging to the family Octopoda. The highest zone of inhibition of about 34mm and 28mm were obtained against Vibro parahaemolyticus and the protein content was 107.16 ug/L and 136.20 ug/L in Octopus dolfusii and Octopus aegina, respectively..SDS profile revealed bands of molecular weight of about 32.83 KDa to 72.36 KDa for both species. Conclusively, the factors analyzed proved that the sample species play an important role in chemicalj defensive mechanism against pathogens causing disease in human and fishes. This study paves a way for further pharmaceutical research against pathogenic bacterial strains producing valuable drugs.
 

gjbarord

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Likewise, during my thesis I've become increasingly aware of many studies that may appear to focus on a species or specific location actually resonate with the bigger picture of marine conservation and what it means to humans. Hope to have more on this later! Greg
 

DWhatley

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Inhibitory Activity of Euprymna stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi Ink and Body Tissue Extracts Against Human Pathogenic (Histamine Producing) Bacteria 2013
Paramasivam S 1 adayan, 2Sathya Thiyagarajanand 1Balachandar Balakrishnan

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Abstract: Antibacterial activities of the ink and body tissue extracts of the cephalopods, Euprymna stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi against histamine producing bacteria. Method: E. stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi were assayed using methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts and tested against selected human pathogenic and histamine producing Bacteria (HPB) Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumonia, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus sp. by agar well diffusion method. Result:
Highest inhibitory activity was observed against
P. aeruginosa in methanol ink extracts of E. stenodactyla and ethanol extracts of S. typhii. Ethanolic extracts of O. dollfushi showed highest inhibitory activity against V. parahaemolyticus and B. cereus in acetone extracts: These results suggest that the cephalopod ink extract can be used in the seafood processing industries to enhance the shelf life of sea foods and control the histamine fish poisoning.
 

DWhatley

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Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) (subscription or purchase)
Vanessa M. Lopes, Miguel Baptista, Tiago Repolho, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis Costa

Abstract
Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1 + 2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses’ excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms.
 

DWhatley

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Reclamation of Loligo duvauceli (Orbigny, 1848) Digestive Gland (Liver) Waste for the Extraction of Oil and its Lipid Composition
Source: Journal of Biological Sciences . 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 7, p634-639. 6p.
Author(s): Vairamani, S.; Sofia, V.; Sudharsan, S.; Vasanthkumar, S.; Ramasubramanian, V.; Madeswaran, P.; Srinivasan, A.; Shanmugam, A.

AbstractIn the present study an attempt was made to isolate the fatty acids from the digestive gland of cephalopod squid Loligo duvauceli. Generally fish and their by-products are the major natural sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), both of them plays a vital role in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The percentage yield of oil extracted was found to be 40.17. In the liver oil, the total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and free fatty acid contents were found to be 2.445 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, 295.45, 204.28, 45.88 0, 99.31, 59.09 and 10.67 mg dL<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The fatty acid profile was also analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA), PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid) and (Multi Unsaturated Fatty acids) MUFA were found to be 70.31, 2.30 and 6.99%, respectively. In the search of new potential source for fish oil, the present study brought out the possibility of the usage of digestive gland of cephalopod as a potent alternative source.
Copyright of Journal of Biological Sciences is the property of Asian Network for Scientific Information and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.
 

DWhatley

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An extreme biomimetic approach: hydrothermal synthesis of β-chitin/ZnO nanostructured composites
Marcin Wysokowski,a Mykhailo Motylenko,b Hartmut Stöcker,c Vasilii V. Bazhenov,c Enrico Langer,c Anna Dobrowolska,d Katarzyna Czaczyk,d Roberta Galli,e Allison L. Stelling,f Thomas Behm,c Łukasz Klapiszewski,a Damian Ambrożewicz,a Magdalena Nowacka,a Serguei L. Molodtsov,c Barbara Abendroth,c Dirk C. Meyer,c Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski,g Teofil Jesionowskia and Hermann Ehrlich*c


Abstract
β-Chitinous scaffolds isolated from the skeleton of marine cephalopod Sepia officinalis were used as a template for the in vitro formation of ZnO under conditions (70 °C) which are extreme for biological materials. Novel β-chitin/ZnO film-like composites were prepared for the first time by hydrothermal synthesis, and were thoroughly characterized using numerous analytical methods including Raman spectroscopy, HR-TEM and XRD. We demonstrate the growth of hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals on the β-chitin substrate. Our chitin/ZnO composites presented in this work show antibacterial properties against Gram positive bacteria and can be employed for development of inorganic–organic wound dressing materials.

Above my scientific reading level. My out-take on the abstract was that they used Sepia Officinalis Cuttlefish cells in an artificial substrate and baked in a test tube it at 158 F degrees to create a substance that could be used in a gram positive bacteria (like staph) fighting bandaid.
 

DWhatley

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Octopus visual system: A functional MRI model for detecting neuronal electric currents without a blood-oxygen-level-dependent confound
Xia Jiang, Hanbing Lu, Shuichi Shigeno, Li-Hai Tan, Yihong Yang, Clifton W. Ragsdale, Jia-Hong Gao 2013 (subscription)
Purpose
Despite the efforts that have been devoted to detecting the transient magnetic fields generated by neuronal firing, the conclusion that a functionally relevant signal can be measured with MRI is still controversial. For human studies of neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI), the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect remains an irresolvable confound. For tissue studies where hemoglobin is removed, natural sensory stimulation is not possible. This study investigates the feasibility of detecting a physiologically induced nc-MRI signal in vivo in a BOLD-free environment.

Methods
The cephalopod mollusc Octopus bimaculoides has vertebrate-like eyes, large optic lobes (OLs), and blood that does not contain hemoglobin. Visually evoked potentials were measured in the octopus retina and OL by electroretinogram and local field potential. nc-MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla to capture these activities.

Results
Electrophysiological recording detected strong responses in the retina and OL in vivo; however, nc-MRI failed to demonstrate any statistically significant signal change with a detection threshold of 0.2° for phase and 0.2% for magnitude. Experiments in a dissected eye-OL preparation yielded similar results.

Conclusion
These findings in a large hemoglobin-free nervous system suggest that sensory evoked neuronal magnetic fields are too weak for direct detection with current MRI technology. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 

DWhatley

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Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885)
Pasiyappazham Ramasamy, Namasivayam Subhapradha, Vairamani Shanmugam, Annaian Shanmugam 2013 (subscription)

Abstract
Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68–74.36% at 1–10 mg ml−1 and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml−1. At 10 mg ml−1, the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38–73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05–1.6 mg ml−1 and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1–3.2 mg ml−1) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1–10 mg ml−1 the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74–73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry.
 

DWhatley

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Morphofunctional characterization and antibacterial activity of haemocytes from Octopus vulgaris
Luca Troncone, Emilia De Lisa, Carla Bertapelle, Antonio Porcellini, Paolo Laccettia, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo 2014 (subscription)

Abstract
This study focused on the morphological and functional characterization of the haemocytes fromOctopus vulgaris as the first agents responsible for innate immunity. Three major haemocytes types were identified by light microscopy based on nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and the presence or absence of cytoplasm granules: haemoblast-like cells, hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The presence of three haemocyte populations was also confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytochemical characterization suggests that they perform different activities during humoral responses. Using the plate radial diffusion method we demonstrated the bactericidal activity of haemocytes in the presence of different bacteria strains. To investigate the presence of soluble biotic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity, using a disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration, we have also tested the methanolic acid extract from these cells. Our results pave the way for the development of potent antibacterial drugs that could lead to several applications.
 

DWhatley

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ANTICANCER PROPERTY OF PURIFIED FRACTION C2 OF CUTTLEFISH (Sepia pharaonis) INK ON CERVICAL CANCER CELLS
V Priya Senan1, P. M. Sherief2 and J. Rjasekharan Nair3. 2013 (pdf available)

Abstract
We have previously reported the cytotoxic effect of the ink extracts of cuttlefish and squid on chick embryo fibroblast cells. In the present study we report the isolation, purification and characterization of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink and the study of anticancer property of peptidoglycan fraction on cervical cancer cells-HeLa and Caski. The ink from cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis was first extracted using Tris-HCl and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular mass and chemical composition of the fraction was determined. Pigment and sugar content were analysed and aminoacids were quantified by HPLC. Anticancer property of the fraction was studied using cervical cancer cell lines- HeLa and Caski. The ink of Cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis were extracted and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and separated the fraction C2. Further analysis showed that the fraction C2 was an uronic acid rich peptidoglycan (molecular mass 10 KD) and it is made up of five amino acids namely aspartic acid, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and alanine. Purified fraction C2 of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis showed a significant anticancer activity through inducing typical morphological characters of apoptosis like chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing and DNA damage on cervical cancer cells in vitro. These findings suggest the profound anticarcinogenic activity of purified peptidoglycan fraction of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink on cervical cancer cells and thus render itself as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.
 

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