Cephalopod Studies for Human Wellbeing

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#1
As we become more aware that our oceans are not boundless and need to be cared for, more and more studies are being done to see what nature's underwater pharmacy contains. Here is the first I have thought to record, please add discoveries as you find them.

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OCTOPUS AEGINA AND OCTOPUS DOLFUSII IN GULF OF MANNAR COAST
S Monolisha, AE Mani, J Patterson, JKP Edward August 2013

pdf available in the link

Abstract

Antibacterial activity and protein content was studied in two species of octopus belonging to the family Octopoda. The highest zone of inhibition of about 34mm and 28mm were obtained against Vibro parahaemolyticus and the protein content was 107.16 ug/L and 136.20 ug/L in Octopus dolfusii and Octopus aegina, respectively..SDS profile revealed bands of molecular weight of about 32.83 KDa to 72.36 KDa for both species. Conclusively, the factors analyzed proved that the sample species play an important role in chemicalj defensive mechanism against pathogens causing disease in human and fishes. This study paves a way for further pharmaceutical research against pathogenic bacterial strains producing valuable drugs.
 

gjbarord

Sepia elegans
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#2
Likewise, during my thesis I've become increasingly aware of many studies that may appear to focus on a species or specific location actually resonate with the bigger picture of marine conservation and what it means to humans. Hope to have more on this later! Greg
 

DWhatley

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#3
Inhibitory Activity of Euprymna stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi Ink and Body Tissue Extracts Against Human Pathogenic (Histamine Producing) Bacteria 2013
Paramasivam S 1 adayan, 2Sathya Thiyagarajanand 1Balachandar Balakrishnan

Full (sort) PDF available using linked title.


Abstract: Antibacterial activities of the ink and body tissue extracts of the cephalopods, Euprymna stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi against histamine producing bacteria. Method: E. stenodactyla and Octopus dollfushi were assayed using methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform extracts and tested against selected human pathogenic and histamine producing Bacteria (HPB) Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumonia, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus sp. by agar well diffusion method. Result:
Highest inhibitory activity was observed against
P. aeruginosa in methanol ink extracts of E. stenodactyla and ethanol extracts of S. typhii. Ethanolic extracts of O. dollfushi showed highest inhibitory activity against V. parahaemolyticus and B. cereus in acetone extracts: These results suggest that the cephalopod ink extract can be used in the seafood processing industries to enhance the shelf life of sea foods and control the histamine fish poisoning.
 

DWhatley

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#4
Uptake, transfer and elimination kinetics of paralytic shellfish toxins in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) (subscription or purchase)
Vanessa M. Lopes, Miguel Baptista, Tiago Repolho, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis Costa

Abstract
Marine phycotoxins derived from harmful algal blooms are known to be associated with mass mortalities in the higher trophic levels of marine food webs. Bivalve mollusks and planktivorous fish are the most studied vectors of marine phycotoxins. However, field surveys recently showed that cephalopod mollusks also constitute potential vectors of toxins. Thus, here we determine, for the first time, the time course of accumulation and depuration of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) in the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris). Concomitantly, the underlying kinetics of toxin transfer between tissue compartments was also calculated. Naturally contaminated clams were used to orally expose the octopus to PSTs during 6 days. Afterwards, octopus specimens were fed with non-contaminated shellfish during 10 days of depuration period. Toxins reached the highest concentrations in the digestive gland surpassing the levels in the kidney by three orders of magnitude. PSTs were not detected in any other tissue analyzed. Net accumulation efficiencies of 42% for GTX5, 36% for dcSTX and 23% for C1 + 2 were calculated for the digestive gland. These compounds were the most abundant toxins in both digestive gland and the contaminated shellfish diet. The small differences in relative abundance of each toxin observed between the prey and the cephalopod predator indicates low conversion rates of these toxins. The depuration period was better described using an exponential decay model comprising a single compartment - the entire viscera. It is worth noting that since octopuses’ excretion and depuration rates are low, the digestive gland is able to accumulate very high toxin concentrations for long periods of time. Therefore, the present study clearly shows that O. vulgaris is a high-potential vector of PSTs during and even after the occurrence of these toxic algal blooms.
 

DWhatley

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#5
Reclamation of Loligo duvauceli (Orbigny, 1848) Digestive Gland (Liver) Waste for the Extraction of Oil and its Lipid Composition
Source: Journal of Biological Sciences . 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 7, p634-639. 6p.
Author(s): Vairamani, S.; Sofia, V.; Sudharsan, S.; Vasanthkumar, S.; Ramasubramanian, V.; Madeswaran, P.; Srinivasan, A.; Shanmugam, A.

AbstractIn the present study an attempt was made to isolate the fatty acids from the digestive gland of cephalopod squid Loligo duvauceli. Generally fish and their by-products are the major natural sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), both of them plays a vital role in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The percentage yield of oil extracted was found to be 40.17. In the liver oil, the total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL and free fatty acid contents were found to be 2.445 mg g<sup>-1</sup>, 295.45, 204.28, 45.88 0, 99.31, 59.09 and 10.67 mg dL<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The fatty acid profile was also analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA), PUFA (Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid) and (Multi Unsaturated Fatty acids) MUFA were found to be 70.31, 2.30 and 6.99%, respectively. In the search of new potential source for fish oil, the present study brought out the possibility of the usage of digestive gland of cephalopod as a potent alternative source.
Copyright of Journal of Biological Sciences is the property of Asian Network for Scientific Information and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract.
 

DWhatley

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#6
An extreme biomimetic approach: hydrothermal synthesis of β-chitin/ZnO nanostructured composites
Marcin Wysokowski,a Mykhailo Motylenko,b Hartmut Stöcker,c Vasilii V. Bazhenov,c Enrico Langer,c Anna Dobrowolska,d Katarzyna Czaczyk,d Roberta Galli,e Allison L. Stelling,f Thomas Behm,c Łukasz Klapiszewski,a Damian Ambrożewicz,a Magdalena Nowacka,a Serguei L. Molodtsov,c Barbara Abendroth,c Dirk C. Meyer,c Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski,g Teofil Jesionowskia and Hermann Ehrlich*c


Abstract
β-Chitinous scaffolds isolated from the skeleton of marine cephalopod Sepia officinalis were used as a template for the in vitro formation of ZnO under conditions (70 °C) which are extreme for biological materials. Novel β-chitin/ZnO film-like composites were prepared for the first time by hydrothermal synthesis, and were thoroughly characterized using numerous analytical methods including Raman spectroscopy, HR-TEM and XRD. We demonstrate the growth of hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals on the β-chitin substrate. Our chitin/ZnO composites presented in this work show antibacterial properties against Gram positive bacteria and can be employed for development of inorganic–organic wound dressing materials.

Above my scientific reading level. My out-take on the abstract was that they used Sepia Officinalis Cuttlefish cells in an artificial substrate and baked in a test tube it at 158 F degrees to create a substance that could be used in a gram positive bacteria (like staph) fighting bandaid.
 

DWhatley

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#7
Octopus visual system: A functional MRI model for detecting neuronal electric currents without a blood-oxygen-level-dependent confound
Xia Jiang, Hanbing Lu, Shuichi Shigeno, Li-Hai Tan, Yihong Yang, Clifton W. Ragsdale, Jia-Hong Gao 2013 (subscription)
Purpose
Despite the efforts that have been devoted to detecting the transient magnetic fields generated by neuronal firing, the conclusion that a functionally relevant signal can be measured with MRI is still controversial. For human studies of neuronal current MRI (nc-MRI), the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) effect remains an irresolvable confound. For tissue studies where hemoglobin is removed, natural sensory stimulation is not possible. This study investigates the feasibility of detecting a physiologically induced nc-MRI signal in vivo in a BOLD-free environment.

Methods
The cephalopod mollusc Octopus bimaculoides has vertebrate-like eyes, large optic lobes (OLs), and blood that does not contain hemoglobin. Visually evoked potentials were measured in the octopus retina and OL by electroretinogram and local field potential. nc-MRI scans were conducted at 9.4 Tesla to capture these activities.

Results
Electrophysiological recording detected strong responses in the retina and OL in vivo; however, nc-MRI failed to demonstrate any statistically significant signal change with a detection threshold of 0.2° for phase and 0.2% for magnitude. Experiments in a dissected eye-OL preparation yielded similar results.

Conclusion
These findings in a large hemoglobin-free nervous system suggest that sensory evoked neuronal magnetic fields are too weak for direct detection with current MRI technology. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
 

DWhatley

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#8
Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885)
Pasiyappazham Ramasamy, Namasivayam Subhapradha, Vairamani Shanmugam, Annaian Shanmugam 2013 (subscription)

Abstract
Chitin was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis and chitosan was prepared through deacetylation. The chitosan was characterized for its structural, physical and thermal (CHN, DDA, FT-IR, NMR, XRD, Viscometric analysis, SEM and DSC) properties. Further, the chitosan exhibited the antioxidant activity of 50.68–74.36% at 1–10 mg ml−1 and it also showed the reducing power of 0.28% at 1 mg ml−1. At 10 mg ml−1, the chitosan exhibited the scavenging ability of 46.17%, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, 23.38–73.70% on superoxide radicals at 0.05–1.6 mg ml−1 and 18.34% to 62.39% (0.1–3.2 mg ml−1) on hydroxyl radicals; whereas at 1–10 mg ml−1 the chelating ability on ferrous ions was calculated as 49.74–73.59%. Based on the potential antioxidant activity, scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating abilities on ferrous ions, the chitosan from the cuttlebone of S. kobiensis may not only be used as a potent natural antioxidant but also as a possible food quality enhancer ingredient in the pharmaceutical industry.
 

DWhatley

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#9
Morphofunctional characterization and antibacterial activity of haemocytes from Octopus vulgaris
Luca Troncone, Emilia De Lisa, Carla Bertapelle, Antonio Porcellini, Paolo Laccettia, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo 2014 (subscription)

Abstract
This study focused on the morphological and functional characterization of the haemocytes fromOctopus vulgaris as the first agents responsible for innate immunity. Three major haemocytes types were identified by light microscopy based on nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and the presence or absence of cytoplasm granules: haemoblast-like cells, hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The presence of three haemocyte populations was also confirmed by flow cytometry. Cytochemical characterization suggests that they perform different activities during humoral responses. Using the plate radial diffusion method we demonstrated the bactericidal activity of haemocytes in the presence of different bacteria strains. To investigate the presence of soluble biotic compounds responsible for antibacterial activity, using a disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration, we have also tested the methanolic acid extract from these cells. Our results pave the way for the development of potent antibacterial drugs that could lead to several applications.
 

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#10
ANTICANCER PROPERTY OF PURIFIED FRACTION C2 OF CUTTLEFISH (Sepia pharaonis) INK ON CERVICAL CANCER CELLS
V Priya Senan1, P. M. Sherief2 and J. Rjasekharan Nair3. 2013 (pdf available)

Abstract
We have previously reported the cytotoxic effect of the ink extracts of cuttlefish and squid on chick embryo fibroblast cells. In the present study we report the isolation, purification and characterization of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink and the study of anticancer property of peptidoglycan fraction on cervical cancer cells-HeLa and Caski. The ink from cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis was first extracted using Tris-HCl and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Molecular mass and chemical composition of the fraction was determined. Pigment and sugar content were analysed and aminoacids were quantified by HPLC. Anticancer property of the fraction was studied using cervical cancer cell lines- HeLa and Caski. The ink of Cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis were extracted and fractionated using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and separated the fraction C2. Further analysis showed that the fraction C2 was an uronic acid rich peptidoglycan (molecular mass 10 KD) and it is made up of five amino acids namely aspartic acid, serine, threonine, glutamic acid and alanine. Purified fraction C2 of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis showed a significant anticancer activity through inducing typical morphological characters of apoptosis like chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing and DNA damage on cervical cancer cells in vitro. These findings suggest the profound anticarcinogenic activity of purified peptidoglycan fraction of cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg ink on cervical cancer cells and thus render itself as a potential chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.
 

DWhatley

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#11
NEUROGENESIS IN CEPHALOPODS: “ECO-EVO-DEVO” APPROACH IN THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS (MOLLUSCA-CEPHALOPODA
Sandra Navet, Sébastien Baratte, Yann Bassaglia, Aude Andouche, Auxane Buresi, Laure Bonnaud 2014 (PDF)

Nervous system (NS) organisation of numerous metazoans is well known but efforts on development are restricted to chordates and ecdysozoans: the mouse, Drosophila, Caenorhabditisbeing the most extensively explored evo-devo models [2]. To elaborate hypotheses on evolution of the structures and functions, additional models belonging to Lophotrochozoa are essential as they display a diversity of anatomical structures and physiological characteristics.Among them, in molluscs, cephalopods beyond their economic interest, constitute new biological models in an evolutionary and comparative perspective. First of all, few lophotrochozoans possess the brain and the camerular eyes as anatomical convergent structures with vertebrates and their highly developed nervous system is
used as physiological comparative model for vertebrates (Fig. 1A). Second, cephalopods exhibit specific derived characters (synapomorphies) among molluscsthat are worth being better explored: a very muscular mantle, arms and funnel derived from the foot, and cerebralisation of the central nervous system (Fig. 1A) [8]. Their development is also particular: unlike other lophotrochozoans, they are all present with a discoidal clivage and their development is direct. They do not show a veliger larva and no metamorphosis apparently occurs. The embryo develops inside a protective egg surrounded by black envelopes (Fig. 1B, C). Third, beside these unique structures, the cephalopod taxa show a wide range of nervous system variations linked to their different modes of life (pelagic, necto-benthic and/or benthic)
 

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#12
Cone Snail Pain Killers Could be 100 Times As Effective As Morphine

Cheating a bit here since you have to backup to Mollaska for the cephalopod relationship.

... Many of the most promising chemicals for chronic pain relief come from venomous animals. Evolution has honed the proteins in venoms to a remarkable degree, and with venoms changing much faster than the animals themselves when species become separated there are a lot of options to study. Exactly why so many of these venoms have analgesic effect is not clear – it is not as if the biters and stingers have decided to take pity on their victims by giving them an easy death. Nevertheless, the potential is enormous. ...
 

DWhatley

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#13
Cephalopod Ink: Production, Chemistry, Functions and Applications
Charles D. Derby 2014 (open access)

Note by DWhatley: Nice overview of cephalopod ink, what we know about it, what we don't and where further research is needed. Don't be over intimidated with some of the chemistry if it is outside your education (as it is mine). There are many paragraphs written for the layman in addition to the more technical breakdowns. I have to admit I was totally amazed that this came from my Alma mater :grin:

Abstract
One of the most distinctive and defining features of coleoid cephalopods—squid, cuttlefish and octopus—is their inking behavior. Their ink, which is blackened by melanin, but also contains other constituents, has been used by humans in various ways for millennia. This review summarizes our current knowledge of cephalopod ink. Topics include: (1) the production of ink, including the functional organization of the ink sac and funnel organ that produce it; (2) the chemical components of ink, with a focus on the best known of these—melanin and the biochemical pathways involved in its production; (3) the neuroecology of the use of ink in predator-prey interactions by cephalopods in their natural environment; and (4) the use of cephalopod ink by humans, including in the development of drugs for biomedical applications and other chemicals for industrial and other commercial applications. As is hopefully evident from this review, much is known about cephalopod ink and inking, yet more striking is how little we know. Towards closing that gap, future directions in research on cephalopod inking are suggested.
 
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DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#14
Squid Protein: Our Best Defense Against Chemical Weapons?
Time June 17, 2014 P. Nash Jenkins

If engineered correctly, the enzyme can "chew up" toxic agents in the human body
A team of researchers at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville has identified an enzyme produced in the bodies of squid that may be effective in breaking down nerve gasses and other deadly chemical weapons.

The team’s study, recently published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, focused on engineering the improvement of these proteins — known as “bioscavengers” — that “chew up” nerve agents like sarin, a chemical infamous for its use as a weapon in the ongoing Syrian civil war and in a terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway in 1995.

The team aspires to create a prophylactic drug from these enzymes that will mitigate their harmful effects on humans, but first they must modify the enzymes to ensure that the human body won’t destroy them first.
“Using an enzyme from a squid as a bioscavenger in humans is problematic because the human body will recognize it as a foreign substance and chop it up,” said research team member Jerry Parks, adding that “other groups have already shown possible ways to get around that problem"
 

DWhatley

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#15
Secretions from unusual venomous sources could unlock next wonder drug


The toxic secretions of venomous animals could hold the key to unlocking the world's next wonder drug, according to a biochemist who says better understanding of venoms might help unravel the secrets of successful drug development.
Bryan Fry, biochemist, molecular biologist and associate professor at the University of Queensland, will give a talk in Canberra on Tuesday evening about how these toxic secretions can be studied to create lifesaving drugs.
Dr Fry said the use of venoms to develop pharmaceutical drugs was not new. For example, some medication for high blood pressure was developed from modified snake venom.
But it is in more exotic and less "traditional" animals – such as the Antarctic octopus or the Komodo dragon – thatDr Fry believes some of most exciting secrets are waiting to be unlocked.

"The ones that have the most different venom are, of course, more likely to have novel toxins which may be useful," he said, "so rather than look at an ordinary brown snake, we do things like go down to Antarctica and collect giant octopus that have venom or go to Komodo Island and collect Komodo dragons,
"We're working on animals which are so unlike anything else that's been looked at, so that means that everything we find is new."
Dr Fry – who discovered that Komodo dragons are venomous – said by researching the venom of lesser-studied animals, there was much greater potential to discover something new.
"You've got some toxins that can raise your blood pressure or drop your blood pressure, some that will make your blood clot or prevent your blood from clotting," he said.
"And then there are ones that could do things you couldn't even predict because there are side effects. For example, there's a medication that has just come on the market from a venomous lizard called the Gila Monster and it's actually turning into being a diabetes wonder drug ... but it also has a use as an anti-obesity drug that's going to make it have an annual market of $10 billion or more because it causes people to shed weight like you wouldn't believe.
"This is from a critically endangered animal so if we had lost these animals, we would have lost this drug."
Dr Fry said his early research had already uncovered anticoagulant properties to Komodo dragon venom which could help stroke patients, as well as properties which drop blood pressure which could be used one day to help treat high blood pressure.
He and his team have also discovered "some weird new neurotoxins" in Antarctic octopus venom which could be potentially useful as a painkiller.
Dr Fry's talk starts at 5.30pm on Tuesday at the Shine Dome at ANU. Entry is $6 and parking is free.
Bookings are essential and can be made at: register.eventarc.com/22663/2014-academy-speaker-series-associate-professor-bryan-grieg-fry.


Read more: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/secretions-from-unusual-venomous-sources-could-unlock-next-wonder-drug-20140630-zsr4i.html#ixzz36HMclR7J[/QUOTE]

:confused: I am not sure why they would go to Antarctica for GPOs.
 

DWhatley

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#16
No fish tale: Squid 'teeth' could one day help with reconstructive surgery, study says

A protein found in squids may be the basis for strong but shapeable new biomaterials.
Each of the suction cups on squid tentacles, which the marine animals use to grab prey, contains a ring of sharp teeth.
The materials made from these “teeth” could eventually be used for everything from reconstructive surgery to artificial ligaments to eco-friendly packaging, according to a new study published in the American Chemical Society’s ACS Nano journal.
The squid sucker ring teeth (SRT) are made entirely of proteins, which sets them apart from other polymers, researchers said.
For a previous study, the scientists identified and decoded one of the “suckerin” proteins and discovered that it can be transformed into different shapes.
In the new study, researchers in Singapore said they have found 37 more of these proteins in two species of squid and a cuttlefish.
They said the SRT proteins could prove to be an alternate to spider silk, which scientists have been trying to harness for years because of its incredible strength and flexibility.
“We envision SRT-based materials as artificial ligaments, scaffolds to grow bone and as sustainable materials for packaging, substituting for today's products made with fossil fuels,” study author Ali Miserez said in a release. “There is no shortage of ideas, though we are just beginning to work on these proteins.”
Nanoconfined β-Sheets Mechanically Reinforce the Supra-Biomolecular Network of Robust Squid Sucker Ring Teeth
Paul A. Guerette†, Shawn Hoon, Dawei Ding, Shahrouz Amini, Admir Masic, Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh, James C. Weaver, and Ali Miserez



Abstract
The predatory efficiency of squid and cuttlefish (superorder Decapodiformes) is enhanced by robust Sucker Ring Teeth (SRT) that perform grappling functions during prey capture. Here, we show that SRT are composed entirely of related structural “suckerin” proteins whose modular designs enable the formation of nanoconfined β-sheet-reinforced polymer networks. Thirty-seven previously undiscovered suckerins were identified from transcriptomes assembled from three distantly related decapodiform cephalopods. Similarity in modular sequence design and exon–intron architecture suggests that suckerins are encoded by a multigene family. Phylogenetic analysis supports this view, revealing that suckerin genes originated in a common ancestor
350 MYa and indicating that nanoconfined β-sheet reinforcement is an ancient strategy to create robust bulk biomaterials. X-ray diffraction, nanomechanical, and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the modular design of the suckerins facilitates the formation of β-sheets of precise nanoscale dimensions and enables their assembly into structurally robust supramolecular networks stabilized by cooperative hydrogen bonding. The suckerin gene family has likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of decapodiform cephalopods and provides a large molecular toolbox for biomimetic materials engineering.
 

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#17
A Drug to Fight Chemical Weapons
July 19, 2014. By Niamh Ni Mhaoileoin

Early on Aug. 21, 2013, rockets filled with toxic agents were fired into the suburbs of Damascus, Syria, killing 1,429 people, including at least 426 children. This attack, believed to have been perpetrated by the regime of Bashar al-Assad, occurred despite President Obama’s “red line,” proving that political threats alone cannot deter the use of chemical weapons.
The U.S. and Russia responded to that attack by convincing Assad to relinquish his chemical weapons arsenal, but researchers at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville are arguing for an entirely different approach for future crises. They want to employ advanced quantum and molecular mechanics to design an enzyme that neutralizes deadly nerve agents within the human body. The prophylactic would essentially immunize people against many of the world’s most lethal and horrific weapons.
...
 

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#19
Therapeutic effect of Sepia ink extract against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in mice
Sohair R. Fahmy, Enas M. Ali, Nevien S. Ahmed 2014 (full paper)

Abstract
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients that requires aggressive therapy. Because of the widespread use of antibiotics, corticosteroids, antitumor drugs, and immunosuppressive drugs, the morbidity of IPA is currently increasing. The ink secretion of molluscan species was identified as one of the novel sources of bioactive compounds. So the present study designed to investigate the antifungal and antioxidant effects of Sepia officinalis ink extract against IPA in mice. Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups (20 mice/group). The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected, the 2nd group was treated with ink (200 mg/kg) and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg) and the 4th group was treated with ink plus amphotericin B (Ink 200 mg/kg and AMB 150 mg/kg). Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation and was administered for 3 consecutive days. The present study demonstrated good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compared with IPA group; IE-treated, AMB-treated, and AMB + IE-treated animals had a 67.80%, 83.41%, and 72.68% reduction in the pulmonary fungal burden, respectively. Treatment with IE and/or AMB for one and three days significantly decreased MDA and increased GSH and SOD levels in the lung tissues as compared with the infected untreated group. In conclusion, the results of our in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrate that IE has therapeutic effect against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis via reducing oxidative stress
.
 

DWhatley

Cthulhu
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#20
Materials Fabrication from Native and Recombinant Thermoplastic Squid Proteins
Abdon Pena-Francesch, Sergio Florez, Huihun Jung, Aswathy Sebastian, Istvan Albert, Wayne Curtis, Melik C. Demirel 2014 (subscription)

Natural elastomers made from protein extracts have received significant interest as eco-friendly functional materials due to their unique mechanical and optical properties emanating from secondary structures. The next generation sequencing approach is used to identify protein sequences in a squid ring teeth complex extracted from Loligo vulgaris and the use of recombinant expression is demonstrated in the fabrication of a new generation of thermoplastic materials. Native and recombinant thermoplastic squid proteins exhibit reversible solid to melt phase transition, enabling them to be thermally shaped into 3D geometries such as fibers, colloids, and thin films. Direct extraction or recombinant expression of protein based thermoplastics opens up new avenues for materials fabrication and synthesis, which will eventually be competitive with the high-end synthetic oil based plastics.
 

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