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Monitoring the Ocean with Cephalopods

DWhatley

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#1
Fish getting smaller as the oceans get warmer

Short article in Practical Fishkeeping that summarizes findings that fish are getting small as oxygen decreases.

I found several references to the study findings, this one in Science Daily but not an accessable copy of the study (published in the Sept 30, 2012 Nature Climate Change journal).

What makes this a somewhat ceph related item is the findings Dr Gilly published about the Humboldt squid becoming smaller, breeding sooner and living shorter lives with the reduction in food supply. The summary article did not mention the other two observations or take into account food supply so the only exposed commonality is size reduction but It is significant to note that we think we are seeing animal size changes in a single life time.
 

DWhatley

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#2
Esterification of vertebrate like steroids in molluscs: A target of endocrine disruptors?

Arnaud Giusti​, Célia Joaquim-Justo Aug 2013
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Abstract

Alterations of the reproductive organs of gastropod molluscs exposed to pollutants have been reported in natural populations for more than 40 years. In some cases these impacts have been linked to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are known to induce adverse impacts on vertebrates, mainly by direct binding to steroid receptors or by altering hormone synthesis. Investigations on the mechanisms of action of endocrine disruptors in molluscs show that EDCs induce modifications of endogenous titres of androgens (e.g., testosterone, androstenedione) and oestrogens (e.g., 17ß-oestradiol). Alterations of the activity of enzymes related to steroid metabolism (i.e., cytochrome P450 aromatase, acyltransferases) are also often observed. In bivalves and gastropods, fatty acid esterification of steroids might constitute the major regulation of androgen and oestrogen homeostasis. The present review indicates that metabolism of steroid hormones to fatty acid esters might be a target of synthetic EDCs. Alterations of this process would impact the concentrations of free, potentially bioactive, form of steroids.
 

DWhatley

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#3
The effect of thermal processing and canning on cadmium and lead levels in California market squid: the role of metallothioneins A. Galitsopoulou, D. Georgantelis, M.G. Kontominas May 2013
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Abstract

The effects of two common seafood preparation practices (roasting and industrial canning) on the heavy metal content (Cd, Pb) of various tissues of California market squid were studied. Emphasis was placed on the role of metallothioneins (MT) in Cd and Pb behaviour during processing. Cadmium and lead analysis was conducted by a Zeeman GTA-AAS atomic absorption spectrometry system and MT analysis was performed by a mercury saturation assay. Results showed that Cd levels in the mantle and whole squid were considerably affected by both processing practices, reaching a 240% increase in mantle and a 40% increase in whole squid. Interestingly, Cd behaviour was associated to MT changes during squid processing. On the other hand, Pb content was not affected neither from processing or associated to MT content in the raw or processed squid. Therefore, processing operations may affect Cd and Pb content differently, due to the specific metal bioaccumulation and chemical features of each heavy metal type.
 
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DWhatley

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#6
Developmental and physiological challenges of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) early life stages under ocean warming

Tiago Repolho,Miguel Baptista,Marta S. Pimentel,Gisela Dionísio,Katja Trübenbach,Vanessa M. Lopes,Ana Rita Lopes,Ricardo Calado,Mário Diniz,Rui Rosa
2013

Abstract The ability to understand and predict the effects of ocean warming (under realistic scenarios) on marine biota is of paramount importance, especially at the most vulnerable early life stages. Here we investigated the impact of predicted environmental warming (+3 °C) on the development, metabolism, heat shock response and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the early stages of the common octopus, Octopus vulgaris. As expected, warming shortened embryonic developmental time by 13 days, from 38 days at 18 °C to 25 days at 21 °C. Concomitantly, survival decreased significantly (~29.9 %). Size at hatching varied inversely with temperature, and the percentage of smaller premature paralarvae increased drastically, from 0 % at 18 °C to 17.8 % at 21 °C. The metabolic costs of the transition from an encapsulated embryo to a free planktonic form increased significantly with warming, and HSP70 concentrations and glutathione S-transferase activity levels were significantly magnified from late embryonic to paralarval stages. Yet, despite the presence of effective antioxidant defense mechanisms, ocean warming led to an augmentation of malondialdehyde levels (an indicative of enhanced ROS action), a process considered to be one of the most frequent cellular injury mechanisms. Thus, the present study provides clues about how the magnitude and rate of ocean warming will challenge the buffering capacities of octopus embryos and hatchlings’ physiology. The prediction and understanding of the biochemical and physiological responses to warmer temperatures (under realistic scenarios) is crucial for the management of highly commercial and ecologically important species, such as O. vulgaris.
 

DWhatley

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#7
Interspecific and geographical variations of trace metal concentrations in cephalopods from Tunisian waters
Moncef Rjeibi, Marc Metian, Tarek Hajji, Thierry Guyot, Rafika Ben Chaouacha-Chékir, Paco Bustamante 2014 (subscription)
Abstract
The concentrations of six metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were investigated and compared in three tissues (arms, digestive gland, and mantle) of three cephalopod species from the Tunisian waters: the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), and the European squid (Loligo vulgaris). Whatever the species or the sites, the digestive gland displayed the highest concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, highlighting its major role in their bioaccumulation and detoxification. This is also true for Hg but only for the digestive gland of O. vulgaris. Muscle from the arms and the mantle contained thus relatively low trace metal concentrations except for Hg in L. vulgaris and S. officinalis. Geographic comparison of metal concentrations in Tunisian cephalopods from three locations indicates that higher concentrations of Ag, Pb, and Hg were observed in cephalopods from northern and eastern coasts, whereas the highest Cd levels were detected in the southeastern, reflecting different conditions of exposure. Comparing the trace element concentrations between species, Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn concentrations were the highest in the digestive gland of octopuses. This may be related to the differences in ecological features and swimming behavior among different cephalopod species. Effects of length and sex on metal levels were also considered, indicating a limited influence of sex on metal concentration.
 

gjbarord

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#8
I think there are some papers on the effect of changing oceans on cuttlebones that might actually increase growth rates, whether that's good or bad in the end, who knows...

Greg
 

DWhatley

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#9
The future of cephalopod populations, fisheries, culture, and research in Europe Cephalopod biology and fisheries in Europe 2006 (full pdf)

@gjbarord , you make me work too hard! I think this may be the article (or includes a summary of the study) you remember.
Rosa and Seibel (2008) demonstrated that ocean acidification will substantially depress metabolic rates (31 %) and activity levels (45 %) in the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and that the effect will be exacerbated by high temperature. However, Gutowska et al. (2008) found that juvenile cuttlefish
maintained not only calcification, but also their growth rates and metabolism when exposed to elevated partial pressures of CO2. They suggest that active cephalopods possess a certain level of pre‐adaptation to long‐term increments in CO2 levels.
It was probably worth the effort to find as it give an interesting case for using cephalopods to monitor climate change.

The combination of sensitivity and adaptability of cephalopods to climate variation, seen in individual life‐history parameters and population processes, and mediated through direct physiological effects and the indirect consequences of effects on other species, makes cephalopods potentially useful indicators of climate change. In addition, the presence of recording structures, such as the beak, gladius, and cuttlebone, means that the environmental conditions experienced over an animal’s lifetime, and its responses, are recorded in terms of isotope ratios and increment sizes, etc., affording the prospect of improved understanding of the mechanisms by which the environment affects the individual.
 

DWhatley

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#10
Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis
Narimane Dorey, Frank Melzner, Sophie Martin, Franc¸ois Oberha¨nsli, Jean-Louis Teyssie, Paco Bustamante, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe 2011 (full pdf)

I believe this is the study @gjbarord mentioned

The results of this study demonstrate the particularities of the response to acidi?cation in both in embryos and juveniles cuttle?sh, in comparison with other invertebrates. Calci?cation processes under elevated pCO2 in cephalopods need to be better characterized in order to clarify the mechanisms leading to hypercalcifcation in this group. Although the combined effects of ocean acidi?cation and temperature did not decrease calcium accumulation during
the formation of the calcareous endoskeleton in S. Officinalis embryos and juveniles, the functional properties of the cuttlebone as buoyancy device could be affected. The effect of raised pCO2 should be investigated on the animal entire life cycle considering possible carry-over effects (e.g., Parker et al. 2012; Dupont et al. 2012) and not only from the calcifcation point of view. Linked to buoyancy abilities, further studies on feeding behavior under projected scenarios of future environmental change would be required in order to assess CO2 impacts on population dynamics of the cuttlefish S. Officinalis.
 

Tintenfisch

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#12
Here's one for paper nautilus (Argonauta). We have plans to look at the hard parts of some other deep-sea squid from a similar angle later this year--stay tuned :)

Argonauta at risk: dissolution and carbonate mineralogy of egg cases.

Abstract. Cephalopods are champion mineralisers. Nautilids produce robust external shells and internal
mineralised tissues; Spirula makes an internal chambered spiral; sepiids produce flat “cuttlebone;” some squids
and octopus produce beaks and statoliths. Most cephalopod carbonate is aragonite, but one octopus is an
exception: the female Argonauta secretes a fragile calcitic spiral egg-case. Three argonaut cases were collected
in NSW, Australia. Four replicate pieces from each were immersed in seawater of varying pH: 8.1 (ambient),
7.8, 7.6, 7.4, 7.1 and 6.7. Weight loss was measured after 14 days. Dissolution rate increased with decreasing
pH, with less than 1% loss in 14 days at pH 7.8, 5% loss at pH 7.4, and 20% loss at pH 6.5. Carbonate from all
treatments was analysed using x-ray diffractometry, showing no significant changes in mineralogy as shells
dissolved. The pelagic life-habit of these cephalopods makes them particularly vulnerable to ocean
acidification. Unlike an internal skeleton, which can be protected from seawater while still needed, the
Argonauta egg case is exposed to sea water from inception. These egg cases, unprotected by mucous or
epithelium, with high surface-area and low volume, and presumably without the capacity to adjust to a less
soluble carbonate mineral, are exceptionally vulnerable to dissolution as ocean pH decreases.
 

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DWhatley

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#13
Seasonal patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in digestive gland and arm of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic
Miguel Semedo, Marta Oliveira, Filipa Gomes, Maria Armanda Reis-Henriques, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Simone Morais,
Marta Ferreira 2014 (subscription)

Abstract
Among organic pollutants existing in coastal areas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their ubiquity and carcinogenic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal patterns of PAHs in the digestive gland and arm of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) from the Northwest Atlantic Portuguese coast. In the different seasons, 18 PAHs were determined and the detoxification capacity of the species was evaluated. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) activities were measured to assess phase I biotransformation capacity. Individual PAH ratios were used for major source (pyrolytic/petrogenic) analysis. Risks for human consumption were determined by the total toxicity equivalence approach. Generally, low levels of PAHs were detected in the digestive gland and in the arm of octopus, with a predominance of low molecular over high molecular weight compounds. PAHs exhibited seasonality in the concentrations detected and in their main emission sources. In the digestive gland, the highest total PAH levels were observed in autumn possibly related to fat availability in the ecosystem and food intake. The lack of PAH elimination observed in the digestive gland after captivity could be possibly associated to a low biotransformation capacity, consistent with the negligible/undetected levels of EROD and ECOD activity in the different seasons. The emission sources of PAHs found in the digestive gland varied from a petrogenic profile observed in winter to a pyrolytic pattern in spring. In the arm, the highest PAH contents were observed in June; nevertheless, levels were always below the regulatory limits established for food consumption. The carcinogenic potential calculated for all the sampling periods in the arm were markedly lower than the ones found in various aquatic species from different marine environments. The results presented in this study give relevant baseline data for environmental monitoring of organic pollution in coastal areas.
 

DWhatley

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#14
Bizarre parasite may provide cuttlefish clues

The article does NOT suggest this is the cause of the cuttlefish disappearing at Point Lowly but is more evidence that parasites can be used as biological evidence of prey items and where an animal has been.

University of Adelaide research into parasites of cuttlefish, squid and octopus has uncovered details of the parasites’ astonishing life cycles, and shown how they may help in investigating populations of their hosts.

Researcher Dr Sarah Catalano has described 10 new parasite species− dicyemid mesozoans −, which live in the kidneys of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus). They are the very first dicyemid species to be described from Australian waters.
... (see article)

“We looked at the dicyemids in two species of cuttlefish, the giant Australian cuttlefish and the nova cuttlefish, from various localities in South Australian waters,” Dr Catalano says. “We found different dicyemid species infected each cuttlefish species at different localities, suggesting there are unique populations of each host species in South Australian waters.

“As such, this offers support for the use of dicyemid parasites as biological tags and we hope to be able to use these parasites to tell us more about cephalopod population structure to assist in management plans.”
 

DWhatley

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#15
Transmission distance of chemical cues from coral habitats: implications for marine larval settlement in context of reef degradation
Dawit Yemane, Stephen P. Kirkman, John Kathena, Silvi E. N’siangango, Bjørn Erik Axelsen, Toufiek Samaai 2012

Abstract
The present study (Ishigaki Island, Japan) explored the distance of transmission of chemical cues emitted by live versus dead coral reefs (Exp. 1: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses with water sampling station at 0, 1, and 2 km away from the reef) and the potential attraction of these chemical cues by larval fish, crustaceans, and cephalopods (Exp. 2: choice flume experiment conducted on 54 Chromis viridis larvae, 52 Palaemonidae sp larvae, and 16 Sepia latimanus larvae). In the experiment 1, HPLC analyses highlighted that the live coral reef (and not the dead coral reef) produced different and distinct molecules, and some of these molecules could be transported to a distance of at least 2 km from the reef with a reduction of concentration by 14–17-fold. In the experiment 2, C. viridis, Palaemonidae sp, and S. latimanus larvae were significantly attracted by chemical cues from a live coral reef (sampling station: 0 km), but not from a dead coral reef. However, only C. viridis larvae detected the chemical cues until 1 km away from the live coral reef. Overall, our study showed that chemical cues emitted by a live coral reef were transported farthest away in the ocean (at least 2 km) compared to those from a dead coral reef and that fish larvae could detect these cues until 1 km. These results support the assumption of a larval settlement ineffective in degraded coral reefs, which will assist conservationists and reef managers concerned with maintaining biodiversity on reefs that are becoming increasingly degraded.
 

DWhatley

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#16
Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus
Blake L. Spady,Sue-Ann Watson1,Tory J. Chase1,Philip L. Munday 2014 (full report)

ABSTRACT
Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses) by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.
 

DWhatley

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#20
Development of Embryonic Market Squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, under Chronic Exposure to Low Environmental pH and [O2]
Michael O. Navarro, Garfield T. Kwan, Olga Batalov, Chelsea Y. Choi, N. Tessa Pierce, Lisa A. Levin2016 PLOS One Full Article

Abstract The market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens, is an important forage species for the inshore ecosystems of the California Current System. Due to increased upwelling and expansion of the oxygen minimum zone in the California Current Ecosystem, the inshore environment is expected to experience lower pH and [O2] conditions in the future, potentially impacting the development of seafloor-attached encapsulated embryos. To understand the consequences of this co-occurring environmental pH and [O2] stress for D. opalescens encapsulated embryos, we performed two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, embryo capsules were chronically exposed to a treatment of higher (normal) pH (7.93) and [O2] (242 μM) or a treatment of low pH (7.57) and [O2] (80 μM), characteristic of upwelling events and/or La Niña conditions. The low pH and low [O2] treatment extended embryo development duration by 5–7 days; embryos remained at less developed stages more often and had 54.7% smaller statolith area at a given embryo size. Importantly, the embryos that did develop to mature embryonic stages grew to sizes that were similar (non-distinct) to those exposed to the high pH and high [O2] treatment. In Experiment 2, we exposed encapsulated embryos to a single stressor, low pH (7.56) or low [O2] (85 μM), to understand the importance of environmental pH and [O2] rising and falling together for squid embryogenesis. Embryos in the low pH only treatment had smaller yolk reserves and bigger statoliths compared to those in low [O2] only treatment. These results suggest that D. opalescens developmental duration and statolith size are impacted by exposure to environmental [O2] and pH (pCO2) and provide insight into embryo resilience to these effects.
 

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