Cephalopod Farming

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Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes
Pedro Gallardo, Alberto Olivares, Rosario Martínez-Yáñez, Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Pedro M. Domingues, Maite Mascaró, Ariadna Sánchez, Cristina Pascual, Carlos Rosas 2017 (full paper)

Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species.
Observations on cooked vs raw foods
However, that family of enzymes (cathepsin and pepsin) has been demonstrated to be quite sensitive to the biochemical structure of the ingested protein. In a study of myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases (pepsin) when meat is exposed to heating, the cooking process was observed to affect protein digestibility via a reduction of attack enzyme sites in the denatured protein (Santé-Lhoutellier et al., 2008). To test if ingredients cooked at a high temperature also affect their digestibility for octopus (via the reduction of cathepsin attack sites in cooked protein), seven experiments carried out to study the effects of several industrial cooked fish, clam and squid meal, and laboratory cooked crab meat on growth and survival of O. maya juveniles (Rosas et al., 2013). Results of that study showed that diets based on fresh crab paste, lyophilized crab, and squid promoted better growth rates than those observed in animals fed diets made with cooked meal. Also, the in vitro enzyme activity was higher in the DG of animals fed cooked ingredients than in the DG of animals fed fresh pastes, indicating that a secretagogue effect was induced in those animals as a consequence of reduced diet digestibility. Therefore, lyophilisation was considered the method that maintained native protein in octopus diets, through facilitation of cathepsin enzyme activity, and in consequence better diet digestibility
Feeding Frequency
This study suggests feeding juveniles every 6 hours and adults every 8 provides the best timing for maximum growth.

Following the histological dynamics of DG in O. maya, Martínez et al. (2011) also observed an increment of residual body density 360 min after feeding, indicating that the feces and cellular debris removal process reached its maximum level at that time. Posteriorly, all the activity in the digestive system was reduced, with low production of residual bodies in the DG cells indicating that digestive cycle had ended (Figure 2A). At that time, nutrient reserves were accumulated in wait for the next meal (Martínez et al., 2011; Figure 2B).

As was previously stated for O. vulgaris by Boucaud-Camou and Boucher-Rodoni (1983), is evident the digestive physiology of O. maya and O. mimus is a fast and strongly dynamic process. In adults, this process takes around 480 min to be completed, indicating that this type of animal should be fed at least every 8 h to maintain its health in captivity (Linares et al., 2015). At a semi-pilot scale, this feed protocol has been followed for more than 5 years (Rosas et al., 2014); adults of O. maya were fed every 8 h using fresh scraps of marine fish or fresh crab (Caamal-Monsreal et al., 2015) or a diet formulated to stimulate spawning in laboratory conditions (Tercero-Iglesias et al., 2015). Under these conditions the number of eggs spawned was quite similar to those observed in wild spawns (Vidal et al., 2014), indicating that laboratory animals fed every 8 h reach a similar healthy condition to those on the continental shelf of the Yucatán Peninsula, where this species lives (Avila-Poveda et al., 2016; Angeles-Gonzalez et al., 2017). O. maya and O. mimus are well adapted, as are the majority of cephalopod species, to digest a high-quality animal protein diet using a mix of acidic and alkaline enzymes. This allows them to efficiently obtain the energy and molecules necessary to maintain their physiological functions according to the environment where they live, as shown for the tropical (22–30°C; O. maya) and temperate (14–22°C; O. mimus) species.
 
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Fully farmed octopus on its way to your dinner table
The article does not give anything in the way of specifics (ie no species or egg size mentioned) but does say the latest octopus hatchlings are from octopuses they have hatched in the fishery.

TOKYO -- Japanese fisheries companies are developing full-cycle aquaculture technology, in hopes of offering a stable supply of fish to meet growing global demand for fisheries products.

Nippon Suisan Kaisha, also known as Nissui, announced on June 8 that it had in April succeeded in hatching eggs of fully farmed octopus at its Oita Marine Biological Technology Center in Saeki, Oita Prefecture, in western Japan.

The seafood company confirmed the hatching of about 140,000 eggs produced by octopus conceived by artificial incubation. Nissui will check the growing conditions, hoping to ship fully farmed octopus to retailers and restaurants across Japan as early as 2020.
 

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The crab genus Hemigrapsus: species native to Japan, their impact as invasive organisms and potential role in cephalopod aquaculture
Ian G. Gleadall , Leo J.-H. Che 2017 (full pdf)

Introduction Cephalopod aquaculture as a reliable commercial venture has proved difficult to put into practice. In species with a planktonic paralarval stage (such as those in the Octopus vulgaris group [1]), one of the major bottlenecks to success is the high mortality of the paralarvae [2]. Methods relying on the convenience of the anostracan branchiopod Artemia have failed so far [2-5] but research continues in the hope that suitable methods of supplementation can compensate for the apparent mismatch between the nutrient composition of Artemia as a prey item and the nutritive requirements of cephalopod paralarvae [6-8]. However, there is much potential for the use of crab zoeae [7-9] In Japan, the common octopus species corresponding to the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic O. vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, is the East Asian common octopus, Octopus sinensis d’Orbigny, 1841 [10]. This was the first cephalopod species with a pelagic paralarva for which the life cycle was completed in experimental aquaculture: a study in which zoeae of the shrimp Palaemon serrifer (Stimpson, 1860) were used as feed during the paralarval stage [11]. Unfortunately, although half a century has elapsed since that landmark study, there is still no established commercial enterprise for culturing octopuses through a life cycle that includes a planktonic paralarval stage. The present research project aims to successfully culture O. sinensis. The project members include a local aquaculture company, an octopus-based fast-food franchise group and three university research groups. As part of this effort, one avenue of exploration is to consider alternatives to Artemia [7-9]. A recent focus of attention is the larvae of small intertidal crabs commonly found along East Asian coasts. They are attractive because their small size and native rocky habitat render them of relatively little commercial value and in Japan normally they are used only as bait in recreational fishing for other organisms (pers. obs.). Some of these species have been identified recently as invasive species in other countries, which seems to suggest that they can reproduce successfully under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Reasons for their success are briefly reviewed here and observations are made on their hardiness and reproductive capacity. They are currently under consideration for mass production of their planktonic larvae as a suitable feed to culture octopuses successfully through their planktonic paralarval stage.
 

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Cuttlefish - Sepia Pharaonis farming feasibility study
Growth performance and nutritional composition of Sepia pharaonis under artificial culturing conditions
Abstract

This study investigated the growth performance and nutritional composition of scale artificially cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis. Juveniles were cultured in an open‐culturing cement pool system for 120 days. The body weight increased from 10.21 ± 1.44 g to 570.71 ± 126.32 g from 50 days old to 170 days old, and the average growth rate was 4.67%. The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of S. pharaonis muscles were analysed every 40 days to compare the quality. The cultured S. pharaonis were rich in essential amino acids (EAAs), functional amino acids (FAAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which accounted for 32%, 46%, 28% and 54% (dry weight) respectively. Total amino acids (TAAs) and EAAs exhibited a clear distinction between ages, and significant differences were observed among the levels of individual amino acids, including Pro, Ala, Asp and Lys, which were significantly higher at 130–170 days old than at 50 days old (p < 0.05). Although the total saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and PUFAs were statistically similar between ages, C17:0, C22:6 n‐3 and PUFAs were higher at 130–170 days old than at 50 days old (p < 0.05). The results indicate that large‐scale artificial culture of S. pharaonis can be achieved under the conditions of a cement pool. This study also provides new information regarding the growth performance and nutritional composition of cultured S. pharaonis, which will contribute to the development of aquaculture practices for this speci
 

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Artificial dens as a management tool for Octopus vulgaris: evidence from a Collaborative Fisheries Research project (central western Mediterranean Sea)
Marco Mereu, Alessandro Cau. Blondine Agus Rita Cannas, Maria Cristina, Follesa Paola Pescim, Danila Cuccu

Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, through a Collaborative Fisheries Research (CFR) project, the efficacy of artificial dens as a possible integrative action for the management of O. vulgaris in the wild. Artificial dens, anchored on rocky substrates at a depth of 38–42 m in a temporary Fully Protected Area (FPA) off the western coast of Sardinia (central western Mediterranean Sea), showed their effectiveness as a temporary and/or safe site for Octopus vulgaris spawning. The suitability of these artificial dens was demonstrated by the presence of egg strings and females in parental care, and by the fact that all of the brooding-phases until the hatching had taken place inside. The presence of abundant cobbles, appeared to be a key factor in the building of a solid barrier for protection at the entrance of the spawning artificial dens, similar to those seen in natural dens. In addition, our results demonstrate the potential coexistence of artificial dens with natural ones, suggesting their potential use as integrative tool for the management of O. vulgaris. Close collaboration with fishermen in the framework of a CFR project within FPA may increase the success of this management action, through the enforcement of the area. Brooding details and laid egg features revealed by the monitoring are reported and discussed.
 

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The Case Against Octopus Farming
BY JENNIFER JACQUET, BECCA FRANKS, PETER GODFREY-SMITH, WALTER SÁNCHEZ-SUÁREZ

Octopuses stand out among invertebrates for their complex behavior. They are capable of problem-solving, mimicking their surroundings using color changes that take place on a scale of seconds, outwitting predatory sharks, discriminating individual humans, engaging in playful behavior, and hunting in response to cooperative signals sent by fish. As these patterns of behavior suggest, octopuses (as well as some other cephalopods) have sophisticated nervous systems and large brains.

Given their exceptional abilities, one might ask whether humans should be eating octopus at all, but here we want to raise a different ethical question. As global demand for octopus grows, especially in affluent markets, so have efforts to farm them. We believe that octopuses are particularly ill-suited to a life in captivity and mass-production, for reasons both ethical and ecological.
...
 

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Cuttlefish Farming - Italy
Captivity in officinalis Sepia of Patterning Body Reproduction to Feeding

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