Cephalopod Farming

DWhatley

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#21
Effects of maternal diet on reproductive performance of O. maya and its consequences on biochemical characteristics of the yolk, morphology of embryos and hatchlings quality
Claudia Caamal-Monsreala, Maite Mascaróa, Pedro Gallardoa, Sergio Rodríguezb, Elsa Noreña-Barrosob, Pedro Dominguesc,
Carlos Rosasa 2015 (subscription)

Abstract
This study examined the effects of mixed diets (with the crab Callinectes spp. as the main component of the diet) on embryonic development and hatchling quality of O. maya. Several O. maya females were fed one of 4 different diets being 1) crab, 2) crab and squid, 3) crab and mussel and 4) crab and fish heads, in a 7:3 ratio. The effects of each diet on the reproductive performance was evaluated by quantifying the total number of eggs female- 1, eggs clutch - 1, hatchlings female- 1, hatchling weight and hatchling quality, measured as the hatchlings survival after 10 d of fasting. In addition, the chemical characteristics of the diet were studied through determination of proximal analysis, amino acids and fatty acids profiles, its relation to the chemical characteristics of the yolk and the morphological characteristics of embryos. Results indicate that mixed diets delivered embryos with a combination of nutrients that promoted a better performance, compared to those from females fed crab exclusively. Females fed mixed diets apparently used energetic amino acids (AA) to synthesize yolk, which play essential roles in embryo metabolism. In addition, females fed mixed diets used saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in the diet to provide yolk with a combination of FA that allowed hatchlings a better performance during the first days of culture. Mixed diets used in the present study could have the nutritional components to satisfy nutritional requirements for reproduction in this octopus species.
 

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#22
Food for hatchings - success with O. vulgaris

Performance of raw material thermal treatment on formulated feeds for common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) ongrowing
Tania Rodríguez-Gonzáleza,Jesús Cerezo Valverdea, António V. Sykesb, Benjamín García Garcíaa 2015 (subscription)

Abstract
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) has aroused great interest in recent years as a new species for aquaculture. However, the inexistence of feeds with an adequate and balanced nutritional profile for all life stages has hampered O. vulgaris aquaculture development. In the present study, O. vulgaris juveniles were fed with one of two different diets, based on dried raw materials (22 % gelatine, 10 % egg yolk, 10 % Boops boops, 5 % Todarodes sagittatus, 5 % Carcinus mediterraneus, 2 % fish oil, 3 % glucose, 3 % starch and 40 % water) and differing only on bogue (B. boops) thermal processing (either freeze-dried - FDb or bogue meal prepared with temperature below 60 °C - Mb). Growth, feed efficiency, digestibility and condition were assessed after 56 days of rearing. Data were used to determine growth, weight gain (Wg), Absolute Growth Rate (AGR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Absolute Feeding Rate, Absolute Protein Feeding Rate (APFR), Absolute Lipid Feeding Rate (ALFR), Specific Feeding Rate (SFR), Feed Efficiency (FE), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Productive Value (PPV), Lipid Productive Value (LPV), Digestive Gland Index (DGI) and Apparent Digestibility Coefficients (ADC). Both diets were accepted, promoted growth and faeces production with 100% of survival. No significant differences were found in growth (SGR of 0.78 ± 0.19 %BW.day− 1 for FDb and 0.85 ± 0.09 %BW.day− 1 for Mb), feed efficiency (48.31 ± 9.70% and 39.22 ± 2.92% for FDb and Mb, respectively), PPV and LPV. Despite the similarity on FCR (P > 0.05), a higher ingestion were found on Mb group regarding to AFR (P < 0.01), APFR and ALFR (P < 0.01) and SFR (P < 0.05). In addition, the Mb octopi showed the highest DGI (6.75 ± 1.00%). Faeces proximate composition differed between groups in protein (P < 0.05), lipid (P < 0.05) and mineral content (P < 0.01) which were reflected in higher ADC for dry matter, protein and lipids in the Mb group (P < 0.01). Nonetheless, the proximate composition of tissues were similar between both groups (P > 0.05). The results revealed that dehydration of raw materials, performed under 60 °C (bogue-meal), had no effect on ingestion, digestibility, growth and survival when compared with the use of freeze-drying, which point out to the possible suitability of this thermal treatment for O. vulgaris feeds.
 

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#23
Breeding programme for endemic octopus advances

Little new news other than studying what effects the rise in temp will have on O. Maya farming.

For nine years, scientists at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) have been conducting research on the red octopus (Octopus maya) to explore the farming possibilities of this endemic species from Yucatan.

The idea behind this research project arose after the low production that took place in 2001, which caused serious social and economic problems among the fishermen of the region.

The studies are being carried out in the Multidisciplinary Teaching and Research Unit of the Faculty of Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UMDI-UNAM Campus Sisal), with the support of the Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food (SAGARPA) and the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries (CONAPESCA).

"We’ve opened the spectrum of projects to studying octopuses adaptations to changes in temperature in order to generate sufficient information to predict what would happen to this population if the temperature of the Yucatan Peninsula rose from 2° to 3° in the next 50-100 years as predictions about the consequences of climate change are warning," explains Carlos Rosas Vazquez, a member of the National Research System Level III
...
 

DWhatley

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#24
Effects of temperature on embryo development and metabolism of O. maya
Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Iker Uriarte, Ana Farias, Fernando Díaz, Adolfo Sánchez, Denisse Re, Carlos Rosas
2015 (paper)

abstract
Temperature Octopus maya is one of the most promising candidates for octopus aquaculture due to its holobenthic development. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) whether the time required for embryonic development of this species can be reduced; ii) whether high or low temperatures affect the size and physiological characteristics of embryos; iii) whether temperature affects the time taken to reach stage XX, using thermal time; and iv) the effects of incubation temperature on hatchling performance, measured as survival after 10 d fasting. Eggs were acclimated at 18, 22, 26 and 30 °C. Embryos incubated at 30 °C reached stage XX 50 d before embryos incubated at 18 °C. A mean value of 596 degrees day−1 was obtained for embryos incubated at 22 and 26 °C where embryo development was optimum. Principal component analysis showed that arm length was the morphological characteristic that separated embryos incubated at 22 °C from the rest of the treatments. Embryos in stage XIX and incubated at 26 °C had a higher metabolic rate than embryos maintained at other experimental temperatures. The best hatchling performance was obtained with embryos incubated at 22 °C. Results indicated that the optimal temperature for O. maya incubation is in the range of 22–26 °C. Statement of relevance: Octopus maya is one of the most promising species for octopus aquaculture due its holobenthic development. This study will be useful when design production facilities because it gives key information to obtain the hatchlings with the best performance.
 

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#25
Kanaloa Octopus Farm looking to rear cephalopods sustainably

By Chelsea Jensen West Hawaii Today cjensen@westhawaiitoday.com
KEAHOLE — A new venture looking to successfully rear octopus on land has set up shop at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority.

“One of the animals that has been on the radar for aquaculture is octopus,” said Jake Conroy, CEO and president of Kanaloa Octopus Farms. “There’s a lot of potential for them and, hopefully, I can rear them and provide them to aquariums — I would love to be able to supply the markets with sustainable sources and hopefully move up to a scale to provide octopus for eating.”
...
Kanaloa Octopus Farm website
 

DWhatley

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#26
Meta-analysis approach to the effects of live prey on the growth of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae under culture conditions
Diego Garrido, Virginia M. Martín, Covadonga Rodríguez, José Iglesias, Juan C. Navarro, Alicia Estévez, Francisco Hontoria, Mikel Becerro, Juan J. Otero, Josu Pérez, Inmaculada Varó, Diana B. Reis,
Rodrigo Riera, António V. Sykes, Eduardo Almansa 2016 (subscription)

Abstract
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier 1797) is a promising species for aquaculture diversification, but the massive mortality during the first life stage is the main bottleneck for its commercial production. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different live preys (Artemia and crustacean zoeae) and/or Artemia enrichment protocols in the paralarval growth by using a meta-analysis approach. A total of 26 independent assays were used, including data from the bibliography and from experiments carried out by our group. Three comparisons were established: (i) crustacean zoeae vs. Artemia, (ii) different crustacean zoeae species and (iii) Artemia enriched with marine lecithin (rich in polar lipids-PL and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA) vs. previously used Artemia enrichments. The meta-analysis approach allowed a quantitative review of independent studies with reliable conclusions, avoiding the subjectivity inherent to classical reviews. The outputs provided statistical confirmation of the better suitability of crustacean zoeae with respect to Artemia. However, not all crustacean species showed the same results, given that the high variability on Grapsus zoeae hampered finding significant differences with respect to the control treatment (Artemia). Nutrient composition and biometry of the different types of prey are discussed as possible causes of the differences arising from the meta-analysis. Finally, the present results suggest that marine lecithin has a beneficial effect on paralarval growth with respect to previously used enrichments, which could be related to the increase in DHA and PL in Artemia, given the essential role of these lipid components in octopus paralarval physiology.
 

DWhatley

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#27
Argentina (Octopus tehuelchus) - Auspicious beginning of octopus farming project

The Mariculture Experimental Station (EEM) of the National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development (Inidep), located in Mar del Plata, is conducting the first experiments with juvenile octopus (Octopus tehuelchus), in order to develop its farming.

The objective of this project is to obtain this year adult and juvenile specimens as well as eggs with embryos for acclimatization to captivity, observation and larval rearing. In this process, scientists have information support of researches of the same species carried out in the south of the country, in Puerto Madryn (Chubut).

The first octopuses were caught in their natural environment by Inidep staff. They were "a batch of five females which had laid their eggs in snails [shells]," said B. Mercedes Berrueta responsible for this experience within the Program of Experimental Biology and Mariculture (MARI) Inidep.

This species is found from the coast of southern Brazil to Puerto Madryn. It is an untapped fishery resource in Mar del Plata, which is removed as bycatch in shrimp and prawn fishing.

"In recent years there has been increased interest in various species of cephalopods as they have high nutritional value and lower fat content compared to fish, in addition to the rapid growth and high rates of feed conversion, making them attractive organisms for aquaculture," Berrueta stressed.

The researcher highlighted that to start with juveniles "is a challenge," since "the bottleneck of this farming has to do with their feeding."

For now, the first results obtained in the process of acclimatization to captivity have been good, so the prospects to start the study of the growth of the larvae in laboratory are promising.

Researchers already have an adult Octopus tehuelchus, which they are preparing since last July to be a breeding specimen. They are also trying to establish "optimal environmental and social parameters."

As part of this initial experimental phase, an agreement between Inidep and Universidad Austral de Chile (UACH) is about to be materialized, for the exchange of information and technologies related to the cultivation of cephalopods.
 

DWhatley

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#28
Cuttlefish (2016)
COA touts program for raising popular cuttlefish

Note:
It has become increasingly difficult for fishermen to catch pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid due to overfishing and diminished habitats, with only about 1 percent of young cuttlefish and squid surviving in the wild, compared with 40 percent among those cultivated, Huang said.

“The most difficult part is taking care of infant cuttlefish and squid. They typically have to feed on live shrimps or fish until they are 20 days old, which is why cultivation was thought impractical and unprofitable. However, we have found a way to make 10-day-old cuttlefish and squid eat dead bait,” Huang said.


The Council of Agriculture (COA) said its Fisheries Research Institute has developed a way to raise pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid in captivity — both commercially important species — in a bid to replenish fisheries resources and lower market prices.

Cephalopods, including squid and octopus, account for 14 percent of total fish catches worldwide, and that proportion is growing, institute Director-General Chen June-ru (陳君如) said, adding that Pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid are the two most popular cephalopods among consumers, so the council determined to try and domesticate these two animals as part of its “blue economy” project.

Pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid are high-value species and can be sold at more than NT$250 and NT$500 per kilogram respectively — five to 10 times the price of milkfish, which is often cultivated in Taiwan — and they can bear lower temperatures than milkfish, making them a more profitable option for fish farmers, Chen said.

“What we developed is the world’s first complete culture system for pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squids. Having a complete system means that we can grow pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid in artificial environments without needing to harvest them in the sea; there probably will not be much fishing in the sea in the future,” Penghu Marine Biology Research Center researcher Huang Ting-shih (黃丁士) said.

It has become increasingly difficult for fishermen to catch pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid due to overfishing and diminished habitats, with only about 1 percent of young cuttlefish and squid surviving in the wild, compared with 40 percent among those cultivated, Huang said.

“The most difficult part is taking care of infant cuttlefish and squid. They typically have to feed on live shrimps or fish until they are 20 days old, which is why cultivation was thought impractical and unprofitable. However, we have found a way to make 10-day-old cuttlefish and squid eat dead bait,” Huang said.

Cultivated pharaoh cuttlefish and bigfin reef squid might be available in two to three years at half the price of wild-caught specimens, he said, adding that the institute would teach fish farmers how to train baby cuttlefish and squids to eat commercial, non-live feed.

The institute also plans to release artificially grown cuttlefish and squid into the ocean to replenish the diminishing fisheries resources, with 15,000 cuttlefish and 2,000 squid to be released this year, Chen said.
 

DWhatley

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#29
Aquaculture of Octopus species: present status, problems and perspectives
Elisabeth Berger 2010 (pdf)
DWhatley - contains a table of tried foods and outcomes

Abstract The aquaculture of Octopus species is currently an active field of research around the world, but economic viability is not yet achieved. Here, the current state of knowledge with respect to Octopus water quality and nutritional requirements, reproduction, juvenile and adult stages in culture systems, which comes mainly from just one species, Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797), is reviewed. Some critical considerations are addressed and new research lines are proposed.
 

DWhatley

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#31
Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes
Pedro Gallardo, Alberto Olivares, Rosario Martínez-Yáñez, Claudia Caamal-Monsreal, Pedro M. Domingues, Maite Mascaró, Ariadna Sánchez, Cristina Pascual, Carlos Rosas 2017 (full paper)

Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species.
Observations on cooked vs raw foods
However, that family of enzymes (cathepsin and pepsin) has been demonstrated to be quite sensitive to the biochemical structure of the ingested protein. In a study of myofibrillar protein susceptibility to proteases (pepsin) when meat is exposed to heating, the cooking process was observed to affect protein digestibility via a reduction of attack enzyme sites in the denatured protein (Santé-Lhoutellier et al., 2008). To test if ingredients cooked at a high temperature also affect their digestibility for octopus (via the reduction of cathepsin attack sites in cooked protein), seven experiments carried out to study the effects of several industrial cooked fish, clam and squid meal, and laboratory cooked crab meat on growth and survival of O. maya juveniles (Rosas et al., 2013). Results of that study showed that diets based on fresh crab paste, lyophilized crab, and squid promoted better growth rates than those observed in animals fed diets made with cooked meal. Also, the in vitro enzyme activity was higher in the DG of animals fed cooked ingredients than in the DG of animals fed fresh pastes, indicating that a secretagogue effect was induced in those animals as a consequence of reduced diet digestibility. Therefore, lyophilisation was considered the method that maintained native protein in octopus diets, through facilitation of cathepsin enzyme activity, and in consequence better diet digestibility
Feeding Frequency
This study suggests feeding juveniles every 6 hours and adults every 8 provides the best timing for maximum growth.

Following the histological dynamics of DG in O. maya, Martínez et al. (2011) also observed an increment of residual body density 360 min after feeding, indicating that the feces and cellular debris removal process reached its maximum level at that time. Posteriorly, all the activity in the digestive system was reduced, with low production of residual bodies in the DG cells indicating that digestive cycle had ended (Figure 2A). At that time, nutrient reserves were accumulated in wait for the next meal (Martínez et al., 2011; Figure 2B).

As was previously stated for O. vulgaris by Boucaud-Camou and Boucher-Rodoni (1983), is evident the digestive physiology of O. maya and O. mimus is a fast and strongly dynamic process. In adults, this process takes around 480 min to be completed, indicating that this type of animal should be fed at least every 8 h to maintain its health in captivity (Linares et al., 2015). At a semi-pilot scale, this feed protocol has been followed for more than 5 years (Rosas et al., 2014); adults of O. maya were fed every 8 h using fresh scraps of marine fish or fresh crab (Caamal-Monsreal et al., 2015) or a diet formulated to stimulate spawning in laboratory conditions (Tercero-Iglesias et al., 2015). Under these conditions the number of eggs spawned was quite similar to those observed in wild spawns (Vidal et al., 2014), indicating that laboratory animals fed every 8 h reach a similar healthy condition to those on the continental shelf of the Yucatán Peninsula, where this species lives (Avila-Poveda et al., 2016; Angeles-Gonzalez et al., 2017). O. maya and O. mimus are well adapted, as are the majority of cephalopod species, to digest a high-quality animal protein diet using a mix of acidic and alkaline enzymes. This allows them to efficiently obtain the energy and molecules necessary to maintain their physiological functions according to the environment where they live, as shown for the tropical (22–30°C; O. maya) and temperate (14–22°C; O. mimus) species.
 
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DWhatley

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#32
Fully farmed octopus on its way to your dinner table
The article does not give anything in the way of specifics (ie no species or egg size mentioned) but does say the latest octopus hatchlings are from octopuses they have hatched in the fishery.

TOKYO -- Japanese fisheries companies are developing full-cycle aquaculture technology, in hopes of offering a stable supply of fish to meet growing global demand for fisheries products.

Nippon Suisan Kaisha, also known as Nissui, announced on June 8 that it had in April succeeded in hatching eggs of fully farmed octopus at its Oita Marine Biological Technology Center in Saeki, Oita Prefecture, in western Japan.

The seafood company confirmed the hatching of about 140,000 eggs produced by octopus conceived by artificial incubation. Nissui will check the growing conditions, hoping to ship fully farmed octopus to retailers and restaurants across Japan as early as 2020.
 

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#33
The crab genus Hemigrapsus: species native to Japan, their impact as invasive organisms and potential role in cephalopod aquaculture
Ian G. Gleadall , Leo J.-H. Che 2017 (full pdf)

Introduction Cephalopod aquaculture as a reliable commercial venture has proved difficult to put into practice. In species with a planktonic paralarval stage (such as those in the Octopus vulgaris group [1]), one of the major bottlenecks to success is the high mortality of the paralarvae [2]. Methods relying on the convenience of the anostracan branchiopod Artemia have failed so far [2-5] but research continues in the hope that suitable methods of supplementation can compensate for the apparent mismatch between the nutrient composition of Artemia as a prey item and the nutritive requirements of cephalopod paralarvae [6-8]. However, there is much potential for the use of crab zoeae [7-9] In Japan, the common octopus species corresponding to the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic O. vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, is the East Asian common octopus, Octopus sinensis d’Orbigny, 1841 [10]. This was the first cephalopod species with a pelagic paralarva for which the life cycle was completed in experimental aquaculture: a study in which zoeae of the shrimp Palaemon serrifer (Stimpson, 1860) were used as feed during the paralarval stage [11]. Unfortunately, although half a century has elapsed since that landmark study, there is still no established commercial enterprise for culturing octopuses through a life cycle that includes a planktonic paralarval stage. The present research project aims to successfully culture O. sinensis. The project members include a local aquaculture company, an octopus-based fast-food franchise group and three university research groups. As part of this effort, one avenue of exploration is to consider alternatives to Artemia [7-9]. A recent focus of attention is the larvae of small intertidal crabs commonly found along East Asian coasts. They are attractive because their small size and native rocky habitat render them of relatively little commercial value and in Japan normally they are used only as bait in recreational fishing for other organisms (pers. obs.). Some of these species have been identified recently as invasive species in other countries, which seems to suggest that they can reproduce successfully under a wide variety of environmental conditions. Reasons for their success are briefly reviewed here and observations are made on their hardiness and reproductive capacity. They are currently under consideration for mass production of their planktonic larvae as a suitable feed to culture octopuses successfully through their planktonic paralarval stage.
 

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#34
Cuttlefish - Sepia Pharaonis farming feasibility study
Growth performance and nutritional composition of Sepia pharaonis under artificial culturing conditions
Abstract

This study investigated the growth performance and nutritional composition of scale artificially cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis. Juveniles were cultured in an open‐culturing cement pool system for 120 days. The body weight increased from 10.21 ± 1.44 g to 570.71 ± 126.32 g from 50 days old to 170 days old, and the average growth rate was 4.67%. The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of S. pharaonis muscles were analysed every 40 days to compare the quality. The cultured S. pharaonis were rich in essential amino acids (EAAs), functional amino acids (FAAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which accounted for 32%, 46%, 28% and 54% (dry weight) respectively. Total amino acids (TAAs) and EAAs exhibited a clear distinction between ages, and significant differences were observed among the levels of individual amino acids, including Pro, Ala, Asp and Lys, which were significantly higher at 130–170 days old than at 50 days old (p < 0.05). Although the total saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and PUFAs were statistically similar between ages, C17:0, C22:6 n‐3 and PUFAs were higher at 130–170 days old than at 50 days old (p < 0.05). The results indicate that large‐scale artificial culture of S. pharaonis can be achieved under the conditions of a cement pool. This study also provides new information regarding the growth performance and nutritional composition of cultured S. pharaonis, which will contribute to the development of aquaculture practices for this speci
 

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#35
Artificial dens as a management tool for Octopus vulgaris: evidence from a Collaborative Fisheries Research project (central western Mediterranean Sea)
Marco Mereu, Alessandro Cau. Blondine Agus Rita Cannas, Maria Cristina, Follesa Paola Pescim, Danila Cuccu

Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate, through a Collaborative Fisheries Research (CFR) project, the efficacy of artificial dens as a possible integrative action for the management of O. vulgaris in the wild. Artificial dens, anchored on rocky substrates at a depth of 38–42 m in a temporary Fully Protected Area (FPA) off the western coast of Sardinia (central western Mediterranean Sea), showed their effectiveness as a temporary and/or safe site for Octopus vulgaris spawning. The suitability of these artificial dens was demonstrated by the presence of egg strings and females in parental care, and by the fact that all of the brooding-phases until the hatching had taken place inside. The presence of abundant cobbles, appeared to be a key factor in the building of a solid barrier for protection at the entrance of the spawning artificial dens, similar to those seen in natural dens. In addition, our results demonstrate the potential coexistence of artificial dens with natural ones, suggesting their potential use as integrative tool for the management of O. vulgaris. Close collaboration with fishermen in the framework of a CFR project within FPA may increase the success of this management action, through the enforcement of the area. Brooding details and laid egg features revealed by the monitoring are reported and discussed.
 

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