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Toxin Contamination in Cephalopods

DWhatley

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#1
Studies for high levels of toxins are routinely done on fish and mollusks to determine if they are safe to eat. Recently several studies are determining if cephalopods are also becoming showing signs of concentrations above safe eating levels.
 
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DWhatley

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ACCUMULATION AND TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF DOMOIC ACID IN THE COMMON CUTTLEFISH, SÉPIA OFFICINALIS FROM THE SOUTH MOROCCAN COAST.
Asia Ben haddouch, Hamid Taleb, Hind Elmortaji, Samir Ben Brahim, Btissam Ennafah, Khalid Menchih, Abdeltif Boumaz, Fatima Mzaki, Asmaa Radi, Mohamed Loutfi 2016 (PDF)

Human intoxications are not expected as long as DA was only detected in the flesh at levels (16 mg DA kg-1) not exceed regulatory value. However, in some countries, whole juvenile animals are consumed (without evisceration), and in this case they might represent a risk to human health as the AD accumulation is more significant in the digestive gland than in the flesh.
ABSTRACT

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. In Morocco, many mollusc species are subject to regular monitoring of levels of contamination by toxins via Network Observation of the safety of the Moroccan coast (RSSL) implemented by National Fisheries Research Institute (INRH). Among these toxins, AD which has been frequently found in the bivalve molluscs, little known about DA accumulation in cephalopod.This study presents the first data showing concentrations of DA that exceed health limits detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis from the south Atlantic coast of Morocco. Domoic acid was found throughout 2014 and 2015 in the digestive gland and flesh of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 50 mg DA kg-1. The highest DA values were detected during autumn month. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected as long as DA was only detected in the flesh at levels (16 mg DA kg-1) not exceed regulatory value. However, in some countries, whole juvenile animals are consumed (without evisceration), and in this case they might represent a risk to human health as the AD accumulation is more significant in the digestive gland than in the flesh. This study reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA in Morocco.
 
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DWhatley

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#3
Determination of Toxic Metals in Cephalopods From South Korea
Eun Yeong Nhoa, Naeem Khana, Ji Yeon Choia, Jae Sung Kima,Kyung Su Parkb & Kyong Su Kima 2015 (PDF)
Commission, the concentrations of these metals in the cephalopods studied were low and did not pose any threat to consumers.
Abstract
This study determined lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and aluminum in six cephalopod species commercially available to consumers in South Korea. The samples were prepared by microwave assisted acid digestion and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for As, Pb, and Cd and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for Al. Hg was determined by a direct mercury analyzer with furnace-gold amalgation. Linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and recovery measurements were performed for validation. The analytical results showed that the average concentrations of metals were in decreasing order of Al>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Paroctopus dofleini contained relatively high concentrations of Pb (0.43 mg/kg) and As (14.6 mg/kg); Todarodes pacificus contained high Cd (15.0 mg/kg), while Al (40.4 mg/kg) was highest in Loligo beka. In comparison with the guidelines specified by Korean Food Regulations, the United Nations, and the European Commission, the concentrations of these metals in the cephalopods studied were low and did not pose any threat to consumers.
 

DWhatley

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#4
Ecotoxicology of early-life stages in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: review and perspectives
Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe, Charles Le Pabic, Paco Bustamante (Laboratoire Arago, 2016, 66 (1), pp.65-79 pdf)

Abstract Cephalopods, and among them, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, are well-known to highly accumulate both organic and inorganic contaminants in their tissues. According to their ecology, embryonic and juvenile development occurs in coastal waters and is thus particularly subjected to anthropogenic contaminants. Considering that these early life stages are relatively long compared to the total life span of cuttlefish (i.e. 2 months of embryogenesis and 1 month of maturing juvenile life vs. 12 to 18 months of life span), the exposure of eggs and juveniles to contaminants may affect the ontogenesis and development of these earliest stages and impact their recruitment success. This paper reviews the sparse knowledge on the effects of contaminants on embryonic development and juvenile life. The embryos which are surrounded by an eggshell are partly protected against dissolved metal accumulation, but may be subjected to maternally transferred contaminants. Moreover, this bioaccumulation capacity could be affected by the physiological responses of embryos to the environmental variations such as seawater warming or hypercarbia. When hatched, juveniles can accumulate contaminants from waterborne, sediment and dietary pathways. Food appears to be the main source of contamination for most metallic contaminants. The digestive gland is known as being the main organ of detoxification and storage in adult cephalopods but in embryos and juveniles, the immaturity of the digestive system raises the question of its efficiency to cope with the toxic effects of contaminants during these early life stages. To date, a couple of studies have highlighted the sublethal effects of metals, e.g Ag, Cd, Zn, and pharmaceuticals, e.g. fluoxetine, on digestive, immune and neural systems, with consequences on growth and behaviour.
 

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