Prior post copied to this forum from Iglesias J., Otero J.J., Moxica C., Fuentes L. & Sanchez F.J. (2004) The completed life cycle of the octopus (Octopus vulgaris, Cuvier) under culture conditions: paralarval rearing using Artemia and zoeae, and first data on juvenile growth up to 8 months of age. Aquaculture International, 12, 481-487: Abstract. This paper shows innovating results on Octopus vulgaris Cuvier 1797 growth under culture conditions during the whole life cycle. Experiments were conducted at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography of Vigo (Spain). Using mean water temperature of 22.5◦C (ddw: 72.5 F), salinity of 35 (ddw: 1.026 SG) and adult Artemia (1–4mm of total length) along with a diet complement of Maja squinado zoeae as living prey, it was possible to obtain a 31.5% paralarval survival at day 40 after hatching. At this age, paralarvae had reached a dry weight of 9.5mg, 23 suckers per arm, and they began the settlement process. First results on juvenile growth showed that they reached 0.5–0.6 kg at the age of 6 months after hatching, and 2 months later, they attained weights ranging between 1.4 and 1.8 kg. Mean temperature of the ongrowing process was 18◦C. Material and methods Two thousand recently hatched (day 0) paralarvae were obtained from spontaneous spawning of female octopuses kept in captivity using the technology described by Moxica et al. (2001). They were transferred to a 1m3 PVC tank provided with filtered seawater (1 μm) at a concentration of 2 ind l−1. Tank was circular (130 cm of diameter) with black wall and white bottom. Mean water temperature was 22.5◦C (19.6–22.9), salinity 35 (34.2–35.7) and a 24 h light cycle was provided with two 36Wdaylight fluorescent tubes, resulting in an intensity of 600–1000 lux on surface. Levels of dissolved oxygen, nitrites and ammonium were measured daily. A close water circuit with central aeration was maintained during the first week. Microalgae (Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros sp.) were added daily in order to feed the remaining preys in the culture tank, to keep them in the best nutritional condition. From day 8 on, the water system was partially open (10 lmin−1) 4h per day, with a central outlet provided with a 300 μm filter. The tank bottom was cleaned by siphoning every 4 days. Live diet consisted of adult Artemia (1–4mm TL) cultivated at 25◦C during a week with a commercial cereal mix, Blevit Plus (from Ordesa Co.) and enriched for 24 h with Chlorella sp. Artemia concentration was of 0.05– 0.1 indml−1. As a complementary diet, spider crab (Maja squinado Herbst 1788) zoeae, obtained from 16 ovigerous females, were added 4 days per week at a concentration of 0.01–0.1 indml−1. Dry weights of 10 paralarvae were recorded fortnightly after being washed with distilled water, dried at 55◦C for 24 h and weighed individually. Survival 483 was recorded by counting the final number of survivors at day 40, and the mean number of suckers per arm was also registered from 10 individuals at this age. In order to start the weaning process, two groups of 250 individuals (40 days-old) were transferred to 500 l square (1×1×0.5m3) grey tanks provided with sand, gravel and macroalgae. An open water system of 2 lmin−1 was used, with a surface inlet and a bottom central outlet of 1mm mesh size. The rest of animals (n=130) were kept in the former larval tank. Mean temperature during the weaning period was 22.5◦C. Diet consisted of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and common crab (Carcinus maenas) gonads, live small crustaceans (amphipods, mysidacea and shrimps) and thawed mussels (Mitylus sp.). After the weaning period (2 weeks), subadults were fed with frozen crabs and mussels; tank temperature was gradually decreased until ambient values (17–19◦C). The same grey tanks were used in the ongrowing period. Wet weight was recorded monthly throughout an 8-month period, in order to obtain the first data on octopus cultivated from the paralarvae stage up to final weights of 1.4–1.8 kg. AND: First feeding of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 paralarvae using Artemia: Effect of prey size, prey density and feeding frequency J. Iglesias ⁎, L. Fuentes, J. Sánchez, J.J. Otero, C. Moxica, M.J. Lago: Abstract Different assays related to the first feeding of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 are compiled in this paper. They include: age at initial feeding age, prey size selection and optimal density, attack timing after feeding, and effect of dose number on the number of captures. Prey capture and ingestion processes were also analysed. Food supplied was cultured Artemia sp. Each assay lasted 15 min. Although paralarvae already start to feed on the hatching day (day 0), it is during day 2 when a greater number of attacks is recorded (81.7±14.7% paralarvae attack). They mainly prefer (significance level α=0.05) large Artemia, 1.4±0.4 mm (77.0±5.6% of the total attacks) than small Artemia, 0.8±0.1 mm (23.0±5.6%). There is also a slight predilection for the lowest Artemia concentration (33.3± 12.6% paralarvae attack in a 0.1 Artemia ml−1 density, opposite 16.7±7.6 and 18.3±7.6% in densities of 0.5 and 1 Artemia ml−1 respectively). The greatest predatory activity is recorded during the first 5 min after food is supplied (72.2±25.5%). An increase in the predatory activity was also observed when food was distributed in several doses instead of a single dose (75.0±10.0%and 46.7±17.6% respectively). It was proved for the first time that paralarvae completely ingest their preys (including their exoskeletons), in this case Artemia. Time needed for their total ingestion ranges between 4 and 10 min. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. VIA EMAIL: LET ME KNOW if you can't get a hold of this second paper, which has more detailed methods.