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mucktopus

Haliphron Atlanticus
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Another reason not to handle cephalopods. You never know what venom is in that bite. I hope this means more work on this subject will come out by this group, such as any results from Metasepia, Thaumoctopus or Wunderpus.

Cookea, I. R., Whitelawc, B., Normand, M., Caruanac, N., & Strugnellc, J. M. (2015). Toxicity in Cephalopods.

Abstract:
Cephalopods are a morphologically diverse molluscan class that includes octopuses, cuttlefishes, squids, and nautiluses. The behavior, morphology, and sometimes aposematic appearance of coleoid cephalopods
(octopuses, cuttlefishes, and squids) are highly suggestive of the widespread use of toxins for predation
and/or defense. Many cephalopods use a combination of their parrot-like beak and/or toothed radula to inject venomous saliva, thought to be produced in the posterior salivary gland, into prey through a bite wound or a hole drilled into the shell. However, relatively few toxins have been studied to date from only a narrow range of cephalopods. Active components that have been identified from cephalopod posterior salivary gland extracts (or saliva) include neurotoxins such as tetrodotoxin (also found in body tissues), tachykinins and cephalotoxins, biogenic amines such as serotonin and octopamine, and a diverse range of enzymes including serine proteases, phospholipase A2, hyaluronidases, and chitinases. Coleoid cephalopods represent excellent candidates for biodiscovery, being taxonomically distinct from heavily studied venom-producing organisms, and because their venoms appear to be complex mixtures of proteins and small molecules. Understanding the evolutionary history of toxicity in cephalopods remains a challenge, with many major taxa remaining unstudied and very little specific functional information available on most cephalopod toxins. The application of “omics” technologies to research on venoms and other toxic secretions (“venomics”) is an important and powerful way of characterizing entire suites of proteinaceous toxins from pure venom or gland extracts in cephalopods and is likely to yield future insights into the evolution of toxicity in this class.
 

Tintenfisch

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New species named for our very own Steve O'Shea in:

HE Braid & KSR Bolstad (2015): Systematics of the Mastigoteuthidae Verrill,
1881 (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida) from New Zealand waters
, New Zealand Journal of Zoology,
DOI:10.1080/03014223.2015.1063516.

ABSTRACT:
Squids in the family Mastigoteuthidae Verrill, 1881 are ecologically important, being prey to many apex
predators, yet the diversity and systematics of the family remain poorly understood. Mastigoteuthid
taxonomy has been controversial and unstable because species in this family are rarely caught and
often damaged during capture due to their delicate nature. Out of 21 named species, recent reviews
have accepted eight to 17 species. A complete taxonomic review of the New Zealand mastigoteuthids
is undertaken here for the first time to identify and describe locally occurring species. Six species have
been identified from New Zealand waters: Mastigoteuthis cf. dentata Hoyle,1904; Mastigoteuthis psychrophila Nesis, 1977; Idioteuthis cordiformis (Chun,1910); Mastigopsis hjorti (Chun, 1913); Magnoteuthis osheai sp. nov.; and Echinoteuthis famelica (Berry,1909). A full review of this family is still required; an integrative taxonomic approach will be essential because there is often low interspecific and high intraspecific morphological variation.
 

tonmo

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Sensorial Hierarchy in Octopus vulgaris’s Food Choice: Chemical vs. Visual (Anna di Cosmo et. al.)
 

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