Predatory flying squids are detritivores during their early planktonic life

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Predatory flying squids are detritivores during their early planktonic life
Fernando Á. Fernández-Álvarez, Annie Machordom, Ricardo García-Jiménez, César A. Salinas-Zavala, Roger Villanueva
Abstract
Cephalopods are primarily active predators throughout life. Flying squids (family Ommastrephidae) represents the most widely distributed and ecologically important family of cephalopods. While the diets of adult flying squids have been extensively studied, the first feeding diet of early paralarvae remains a mystery. The morphology of this ontogenetic stage notably differs from other cephalopod paralarvae, suggesting a different feeding strategy. Here, a combination of Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) and DNA metabarcoding of wild-collected paralarvae gut contents for eukaryotic 18S v9 and prokaryotic 16S rRNA was applied, covering almost every life domain. The gut contents were mainly composed by fungus, plants, algae and animals of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms commonly found in fecal pellets and particulate organic matter. This assemblage of gut contents is consistent with a diet based on detritus. The ontogenetic shift of diet from detritivore suspension feeding to active predation represents a unique life strategy among cephalopods and allows ommastrephid squids to take advantage of an almost ubiquitous and accessible food resource during their early stages. LCM was successfully applied for the first time to tiny, wild-collected marine organisms, proving its utility in combination with DNA metabarcoding for dietary studies.
 

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