Parts is Parts ...

DWhatley

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A collection of articles describing cephalopod body parts and functions

The Structure and Adhesive Mechanism of Octopus Suckers 2002 WILLIAM M. KIER*,2 AND ANDREW M. SMITH†
*Department of Biology, CB# 3280 Coker Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3280 †Department of Biology, CNS Room 155, Ithaca College, Ithaca, New York 14850

One mucktopus found:
This one looks like a great read! The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision Lydia M. Mäthger, Roger T. Hanlon, Jonas Håkansson, Dan-Eric Nilsson - March 2013

Additional Body Part threads/photos
Cephalopod Beaks in 3D

Giant Blue ring hectocotylus (photo)

Ligula (photo)

How to identify a squid from its tentacle

The Journal of Experimental Biology search cephalopod
 

Stavros

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Awesome thread, my reference manager will visit this often. I will post the links to the following when I have more time but for now here are titles I recommend, primarily for octo arm and suckers:

Barber, V. C. (2010). The sense organs of Nautilus. Nautilus, 223-230.

Budelmann, B., Schipp, R. & Boletzky, S.v. (1997). Cephalopoda. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, 6(A), 119-414.

Calisti, M., Giorelli, M., Levy, G., Mazzolai, B., Hochner, B., Laschi, C., et al. (2011). An octopus-bioinspired solution to movement and manipulation for soft robots. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 6, 036-042.

Cianchetti, M., Arienti, A., Follador, M., Mazzolai, B., Dario, P., & Laschi, C. (2010). Design concept and validation of a robotic arm inspired by the octopus. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 31(6), 1230-1239.

Cyran, N., Klinger, L., Scott, R., Griffiths, C., Schwaha, T., Zheden, V., et al. (2010). Characterization of the Adhesive Systems in Cephalopods. Biological Adhesive Systems, 53-86.

Girod, P. (1884). Recherches sur la peau des céphalopodes. La ventouse. Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen, 2, 379-401.

Grasso, F. W. (2008). Octopus sucker-arm coordination in grasping and manipulation. American Malacological Bulletin, 24(1), 13-23.

Graziadei, P. (1962). Receptors in the suckers of Octopus. Nature, 195, 57-59.

Graziadei, P. (1964). Electron microscopy of some primary receptors in the sucker of Octopus vulgaris. Cell and Tissue Research, 64(4), 510-522.

Graziadei, P. (1965). Muscle receptors in cephalopods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological Sciences, 161(984), 392.

Graziadei, P., & Gagne, H. (1976). Sensory innervation in the rim of the octopus sucker. Journal of Morphology, 150(3), 639-679.

Gutfreund, Y. (2000). The intricacies of flexible arms. Science Spectra(19), 28-37. can't find this anywhere anymore

Gutfreund, Y., Flash, T., Fiorito, G., & Hochner, B. (1998). Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements. The Journal of neuroscience, 18(15), 5976-5987.

Gutfreund, Y., Flash, T., Yarom, Y., Fiorito, G., Segev, I., & Hochner, B. (1996). Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms. The Journal of neuroscience, 16(22), 7297-7307.

Gutnick, T., Byrne, R. A., Hochner, B., & Kuba, M. (2011). Octopus vulgaris Uses Visual Information to Determine the Location of Its Arm. Current Biology, 21(6), 460-462.

Kier, W., & Thompson, J. (2003). Muscle arrangement, function and specialization in recent coleoids. Berliner Paläobiologische Abhandlungen, 3, 141-162.

Kier, W. M. (1982). The functional morphology of the musculature of squid (Loliginidae) arms and tentacles. Journal of Morphology, 172(2), 179-192.

Kier, W. M., & Smith, A. M. (1990). The morphology and mechanics of octopus suckers. The Biological Bulletin, 178(2), 126.

Kier, W. M., & Smith, K. K. (1985). Tongues, tentacles and trunks: the biomechanics of movement in muscular hydrostats. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 83(4), 307-324.

Kier, W. M., & Stella, M. P. (2007). The arrangement and function of octopus arm musculature and connective tissue. Journal of Morphology, 268(10), 831-843.

Laschi, C., Mazzolai, B., Mattoli, V., Cianchetti, M., & Dario, P. (2009). Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm. Bioinspiration & Biomimetics, 4, 015006.

Mather, J. A. (1998). How do octopuses use their arms? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112(3), 306.

Matzner, H., Gutfreund, Y., & Hochner, B. (2000). Neuromuscular system of the flexible arm of the octopus: physiological characterization. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83(3), 1315-1328.

McMahan, W., & Walker, I. D. (2009). Octopus-inspired grasp-synergies for continuum manipulators.

Niven, J. E. (2011). Invertebrate Neurobiology: Visual Direction of Arm Movements in an Octopus. Current Biology, 21(6), R217-R218.

Nixon, M., & Dilly, P. (1977). Sucker surfaces and prey capture. Paper presented at the Symp. Zool. Soc. , London.

Packard, A. (1988). Visual tactics and evolutionary strategies. Cephalopods Present and Past, 89–103.

Rowell, C. (1963). Excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the arm of Octopus. Journal of experimental biology, 40(2), 257-270.

Rowell, C. (1966). Activity of interneurones in the arm of Octopus in response to tactile stimulation. Journal of experimental biology, 44(3), 589-605.

Smith, A. (1996). Cephalopod sucker design and the physical limits to negative pressure. Journal of experimental biology, 199(4), 949-958.

Smith, A. M. (1991). Negative pressure generated by octopus suckers: a study of the tensile strength of water in nature. Journal of experimental biology, 157(1), 257-271.

Sumbre, G., Gutfreund, Y., Fiorito, G., Flash, T., & Hochner, B. (2001). Control of octopus arm extension by a peripheral motor program. Science, 293(5536), 1845-1848.

Walker, I. D., Dawson, D. M., Flash, T., Grasso, F., Hanlon, R., Hochner, B., et al. (2005). Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2005 SPIE Conference on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology IV, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Wells, M. (1963). Taste by touch: some experiments with Octopus. Journal of experimental biology, 40(1), 187-193.

Wells, M. J. (1978). Octopus. Physiology and Behaviour of an Advanced Invertebrate. Chapman and Hall, London.

Woolley, B., & Stanley, K. (2011). Evolving a single scalable controller for an octopus arm with a variable number of segments. Parallel Problem Solving from Nature–PPSN XI, 270-279.

VAVOURAKIS, V., KAZAKIDI, A., & TSAKIRIS, D. (2011). A FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR NON-LINEAR HYPERELASTICITY APPLIED FOR THE SIMULATION OF OCTOPUS ARM MOTIONS. ics.forth.gr. Retrieved from http://www.ics.forth.gr/~kazakidi/publications/2011_eccomas_coupled.pdf

Young, J. (1963). The number and sizes of nerve cells in Octopus. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, London, England.

Young, J. Z., & Boycott, B. B. (1971). The anatomy of the nervous system of Octopus vulgaris: Clarendon Press Oxford.

Zelman, I., Galun, M., Akselrod-Ballin, A., Yekutieli, Y., Hochner, B., & Flash, T. (2009). Nearly automatic motion capture system for tracking octopus arm movements in 3D space. Journal of neuroscience methods, 182(1), 97-109.
 

DWhatley

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Dorsal Mantle White Spots

A question I have asked many time but have never gotten an answer to is,

"What are the two white oval spots about mid-way along the length of the mantle?"

After an ID comment I started to research the spots because I had seen them on an obviously different animal and found that they are present on most species. I have seen them on several I've kept and found them on virtually 90% of the photos in Norman's Cephalopods A World Guide (sometimes you have to REALLY look but you will see them on most octos with multiple photos). I finally cornered Muctopus on the question and got an answer (sort of :biggrin2:)

Ahhh the 'Dorsal Mantle White Spots'...Lots of octopuses have them. They're leucophore-rich fields on the skin that to not move. Various authors (I think Packard, Sanders, Hochberg, and Hanlon) have mentioned the DMWS and/or frontal white spots on the arm crown may distract a predator, though they do draw attention to an important part of the body (the bit holding all the guts). It's possible these fields also display polarized signals that we can't see.
 

Level_Head

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They almost seem like areas of skin specialized for visual communication — sort of visual "speakers" perhaps.
 

Level_Head

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Wouldn't it be better to have a separate, gene-focused thread?

This paper (free) talks about genetic differences between certain octopus species, particularly with respect to the one they're describing, O. insularis. It was very similar in appearance to the larger O. vulgaris, but turns out to be much further away in mitochondrial genes than expected:
http://www.demersais.furg.br/Files/2008.Leite.O.Insularis.J.of.Molluscan.Studies.pdf

The paper describes both the dorsal mantle white spots and arm crown spots in that species as distinct structures in common with O. vulgaris, but does not give much in the way of details.
 

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