Graeme Walla
4BSc Zoology
Dr. Allan Jones
University of Dundee

Table of Contents:
Abstract & Introduction
Basic Overview of the Cephalopod
Basic Limb Terminology
The Use of Suckers
A Brief Description of Cavitation
Decapod Sucker Morphology
Functional Morphology
Structural Morphology
Octopod Sucker Morphology
Functional Morphology
Structural Morphology
Prehistoric Coleoids: Belemnoidea
Special Cases
The Case of Stauroteuthis syrtensis
The Case of the Vampyromorph
The Case of the Nautiluses
A Possible Evolutionary Theory

There have been plenty of studies on cephalopods (Phylum Mollusca), including their hard structures. Unfortunately this has hitherto been restricted mostly to the buccal mass and beak of animals such as squids (teuthids), octopuses and cuttlefishes (sepioids). There is relatively little literature on the subject of the sucker pads on the arms and tentacles of cephalopods. There is even less that displays the information in a comprehensive and focussed document, solely intended for that particular subject. Most of the information is spread across vast amounts of scientific papers and books, where any text on suckers is usually found to be at best fragmentary.

I chose to study the armature of cephalopods in order to perhaps shed some more light on such a little-documented topic. In order to do this I had to find scientific literature. Because there is scant recorded information, I also had to observe preserved specimens directly, of which I took photographs and detailed diagrams.

It was discovered that cephalopods exhibit a great deal of variation in the architecture of their armature. The chief structure...
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